Understanding The Bible
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BY THE AUTHOR
Dr. Clarence E. Mason, Jr.
Philadelphia College of Bible
The Book of Daniel
ANALYTICAL OUTLINE OF THE BOOK OF DANIEL, PART 2
SPECIAL NOTE: CLARIFICATION ON THE PROBLEM OF IDENTIFICATION OF "THE LITTLE HORN" of 8:9,23-25.
WHO IS THIS SINISTER PERSON?
- Not to be confused with "the notable horn" of verses 5, 8, 21-22, who is Alexander the Great, who lived and died somewhat before the rise of "the little horn" of verses 9,23-25.
- Not to be confused with "the little horn" of chapter 7_ (7:8,11, 20-21), because the man of chapter 8 in the near view is plainly a man who comes out of the THIRD kingdom (8:8-9, 23), whereas the man of chapter 7 comes up amid the ten horns (7:7-8,24-27), which represent the final, end-time form of the FOURTH kingdom (cp. with the 10 toes of chapter 2).
Further, since the K) horns do represent the final form of the FOURTH (Western) kingdom, it is doubtful if there is any near-view application at all of the "little horn" of chapter 7 (only far view).
Therefore, in the near view, the "little horn" of chapter 8 is "the king of the north" (Seleucid dynasty), identified by all expositors as Antiochus Epiphanies (8:9-14, 23; cp. 11:21-35). This sinister man was an arch enemy of Israel. He was characterized by craft and deceit; his personality was awesome and convincing. He was a cruel, crushing, enigmatic person, filled with hate for the Jews.
Undoubtedly 8:10-14 and 23 overlap the type, Antiochus Epiphanies, with his antitype of the future, who will heighten all his evil qualities.
FAR VIEW: THREE VIEWS ARE EVALUATED
- It is my conviction that the man in the far view could not be the (Roman) Western FOURTH Empire leader, residing in Rome and identified as la on the chart of movement of armies, found later in this syllabus in connection with chapter 11. See New Scofield note on 8:9 for detail.
- The more natural interpretation would be to make the antitype of the future to be a man arising out of the "north" in the end-time, corresponding to the near-view "king of the north, " Antiochus Epiphanies, of the THIRD kingdom. If this interpretation is taken, the far view future projection of the historical king of the north (Antiochus) would be the end-time king of the north, the Chief Prince of Rosh (Russia), as per Ezekiel 38:13 (New Scofield, margin 1). This future invader of Palestine will be destroyed supernaturally by the Lord on the mountains of Israel (Ezk. 38:18-39:4), as the army of the historical king of the north in an earlier time, Sennacherib, was supernaturally destroyed (Isa. 37:36-37).
He is called "the Assyrian" in Isaiah 10:24-25 and 14:24-25, and Gog and Magog with headquarters in Meshech (Moscow-west) and Tubal (Tobolsk-east), Ezekiel 38:1-2;39:2. He is called "king of the north" in Daniel 11:40.
This future man will be a rival to the Roman Beast and his ally, the Jewish apostate False Prophet (Rev. 13:11-18). Indeed, it is the eastern part of the FOURTH (Western) kingdom land in its final 10 toes/10 horns form which the king of the north invades.
This is a very natural interpretation and I formerly gave this view priority.
- However, when we come later to chapter 11, most premillennialists make a shift from the historical king of the north (Antiochus Epiphanies) in 11:21-35 to a future Willful King at verses 36-39, no matter whom they identify as the Willful King. I have previously confidently identified him as the Jewish apostate leader in Jerusalem (the False Prophet of Rev. 13:11-18) who is allied to the Roman Beast of Rev. 13:1-10. I do this because this Willful King is attacked by both "the king of the south" and "the king of the north" (Dan. 11:40). (See chart appearing later in notes on Daniel 11.) It would seem ridiculous to make the Willful King of 11:36-39 to be the future "king of the north," for why would he attack himself?!!
In chapter 11, we have the rather extensive prophecy concerning near-view kings (of the third empire) who followed Alexander the Great and climaxed in Antiochus Epiphanies (11:21-35), only to abruptly be introduced to "the Willful King, " an end-time character of the FOURTH revived Western (Roman) kingdom.
In my more recent study, I have been increasingly impressed that in chapter 8 we may well have the same sudden switch as in chapter 11, from near view to far view, due to the fact that the Church age, although known to God and in His plan, is never pre-announced by Old Testament prophets (Mt. 13:16-17,35; 1 Pet. 1:10-12).
If this be the case, chapter 8 would parallel chapter 11, in much the same way that chapter 2 parallels chapter 7. The latter two chapters (2 and 7) foretell the four world kingdoms beginning with Nebuchrezzar II and concluding with events leading up to the second coming of Christ.
In chapters 8 and 11, all expositors agree that the climactic figure in the near view is Antiochus Epiphanies. Why may not the sinister far view end-time figure in both chapters be the same man, none other than the second Beast of Revelation 13, the False Prophet, the antitype of Antiochus, whose subtlety and ferocity against the Jews make him an apt illustration of Satan's monster who double-crosses his own people in the midst of the 70th Week of Daniel 9, breaking his treaty with them and precipitating the Great Tribulation.
Only views 2 and 3 are real options to me, and I lean toward this third view.
NOTE: Learn this chart!
THE 70 "WEEKS" OF DANIEL 9
WHAT IS THE MEANING OF THE PROPHECY OF 9:24?
- "to finish transgression" = the sin of Israel brought to a climax in the rejection of their Messiah and acceptance of Anti-Christ.
- "to make an end of sins" = God's judgment on those apostates who accept Anti-Christ.
"to make reconciliation for iniquity" = the basis for reconciliation was provided in the cross, but reconciliation cannot be made by Israel with God until God's Israel repents (cp. difference between available and actual, 1 Tim. 4:10a &_ b; 2 Cor. 5:19 & 20).
- "to bring in everlasting righteousness" = the establishment of the long-promised Messianic Kingdom reign of Christ at His return, when He overthrows Antichrist. The mediatorial kingdom of 1000 years feeds into the eternal kingdom.
- "to seal up the vision and prophecy" = because there is no further need for propliecy. When Christ returns. He will see that all is fulfilled.
- "to anoint the Most Holy (Place)"--not person = Restored Millennial Temple substituted for the temple which is defiled in the midst of the 70th Week by the abomination of desolation (image: Rev. 13:11-18).
PROOF THAT THE TEMPLE REFERRED TO IN 9:26-27 MUST BE HEROD'S
The covenant which brings in the 70th heptad (week) is not made until after v.26. Hence, the covenant (treaty) cannot be made until after the destruction of the city (Jerusalem) and its sanctuary (temple) in AD 70 (prophesied in 26b).
THE DESTRUCTION OF THE TEMPLE:
- Could not be IN the 69 weeks because it occurs after Messiah is "cut off" (cross) 26a
- Could not be IN the 70th week because v.27 indicates that sacrifice will be carried on in a temple in Jerusalem in harmony with the covenant for "one" week, permitting restoration of sacrifice. That temple must be standing in the middle of the 70th week (v.27b), if it is to be defiled by the abomination of desolation (image, Rev. 13:14; Mt. 24:15), thus stopping sacrifice (v.27b). But that temple is not destroyed in the 70th week because the image of the Beast is worshipped IN it during the last 3 1/2 years (cp. 2Thes. 2:4; Rev. 13:11-18).
- The temple referred to in v.26b cannot be destroyed AFTER the 70th week because the millennial temple (Ezk. 40-48) will be a place of constant worship of Christ the King-Priest, and since Christ is reigning during the 1000 years, no one can overthrow Him or the temple, though an unsuccessful attempt will be made when the 1000 years are ended (Rev. 20:7-10).
THEREFORE, THE DESTRUCTION OF THE TEMPLE OF v.26b MUST BE BETWEEN THE CLOSE OF THE 69th WEEK (Messiah "cut off "--i.e., the cross), AND THE OPENING OF THE 70th WEEK (i.e., confirmation of the covenant permitting restoration of temple worship). Thus, there is a gap or intercalation between 69th and 70th weeks (e.g., 1 Pet. 1:10-12; Mt. 13; Eph. 3; Col. 1; etc.).
EGYPT - Ptolemies (South)
|SYRIA - Seleucids (North)|
|11:5 Ptolemy I Soter||321-285 BC||11:5 Seleucids I Nicator||312-281 BC|
|11:6 Ptolemy II Philadelphus||285-246 BC||Antiochus I Soter||281-261 BC|
|11:7-8 Ptolemy III Euergetes I||246-222 BC||11:6 Antiochus II Theos||261-246 BC|
|11:11-12, 14 Ptolemy IV Philopator||222-203 BC||11:9 Seleucids II Callinicus||246-226 BC|
|11:14-24 Ptolemy V Epiphanies||203-181 BC||11:10 Seleucids III Ceraunus (Soter)||226-223 BC|
(and others till it became a Roman province in 30 BC)
11:10 Antiochus III the
(Also, 11:12-14, 16-18)
|11:20 Seleucids IV Philopator||187-175 BC|
11:21-25 Antiochus IV
("illustrious" - called Epimanes, Epimanes, "madman")
|Antiochus V Eupator||164-162 BC|
|Demetrius I Soter||162-150 BC|
Alexander I Balas
(and others till Philippus II, when Pompey made it a Roman Province in 64 BC
became queen jointly with Ptolemy XIV (51-47 BC) and
dominated the closing part of this period until her death in 30 BC]
SUMMARY OF ACTIVITIES OF SOME KINGS IN TABLE ON PAGE 24 11:5-20 See New Scofield, pp.915-916, for helpful identifications
- The rise of Syria 5
Seleucids I Nicator was at first simply a subordinate of Ptolemy I Soter I's Egyptian Empire, which included Syria, but in time Seleucids' Syrian kingdom gained its independence and became greater than the Ptolemaic kingdom.
- An attempt for peace 6
Laodice, former wife of Antiochus II Theos, was divorced by agreement. Also, the Egyptian princess Berenice was given in marriage to Antiochus II Theos by Ptolemy II Philadelphus in an attempt to secure peace. The effort failed.
- An Egyptian victory 7-9 (under Ptolemy III Euergetes I)
- Antiochus the Great 10-19
- Unsuccessful invasion of Egypt 10-12
- Victories in Israel 's land 13-16
- Strategy to obtain Egypt (by marriage) 17
But his daughter was loyal to her Egyptian husband rather than her Syrian father.
- An invasion of Greece 18
One of the Roman Scipios defeated him and turned Rome's conquering face eastward.
- An ignominious death 19
Killed while attempting to plunder a temple on the way home from Greece.
- The "Raiser of Taxes" - Seleucids IV Philopater 20
The son of Antiochus the Great had to raise the taxes for tribute exacted by Rome. He plundered the temple at Jerusalem for this purpose.
Now, back to our outline:
..... (b) GREECE 11:3-35 (continued)
.......... v. The Syrian king who will particularly hurt Israel = Antiochus Epiphanies 11:21-35
...............(A) His rise 21-24
.................... (i) His enthronement 21
.................... (ii) His successes and deceit 22-24
...............(B) His warfare with Egypt 25-30a
.................... (i) The first expedition - success 25-27
.....................(ii) Exploits against Israel 28 (cp. 8:10)
.....................(iii) Second expedition against Egypt - failure 29-30a ("Chittim" = west; literally, "isles"; in this case, Greece and Rome, who assisted Egypt.)
..........(C) His blasphemies against the God of Israel 30b-35
..................... (i) Antiochus's conspiracy with the apostate Jews 30, 32a
..................... (ii) The pollution of the temple and sacrifices 31 This "abomination of desolation" lasted for 2300 days (8:13-14); a yet future "abomination of desolation" (12:11; Mt. 24:15 and Rev. 13:14-15) is illustrated by this historical account of Antiochus.
..................... (iii) Persecution of the faithful Jews 32b-35
................ The events of these passages are not only literal, but typical, and blend with another defilement of the temple in the end-time (70th Week) by Jewish leader, who will likewise divide Israel into two groups --the apostate and the faithful.
(An INTERVAL between Antiochus and his antitype, the Jewish leader in Jerusalem, occurs between verses 35 and 36, similar to the gap between Daniel's 69th and 70th weeks.)
No. 1 “WEST” - The Jewish "Willful King" in Jerusalem (Dan. 11:45, labeled 1b on p. 29) is allied to the Head of Revived Fourth (Western or Roman) Empire (Dan. 2:40-43; 7:7-8) whose headquarters are in Rome (labeled la in chart on p. 29).
No. 2 “SOUTH” - The King of the SOUTH who "pushes at" No. 1b (Dan. ll:40a), located in Jerusalem. No. 2 seems to be allied with No. 3 (Dan. ll:43h: Ezk. 38:5-6) and his attack is evidently designed to draw No. 1b out of position (with his back to the north). No. 2 initially succeeds in capturing Egypt with the especial help of Ethiopia and Libya (Dan. 11:42-43; Ezk. 38:5). In the meantime
No. 3 “NORTH” - The King of the NORTH (the Assyrian, Gog-Magog, Isa. 10:24-27; 14:25; Mic. 5:5-6; Ezk. 38-39) then swoops down, while No. 1b has turned south to protect his flank against No. 2. (No. 1b is evidently soon able to neutralize the armies of No. 2, for we hear no more of No. 2). This accomplished. No. 1b hastens back to Palestine because of unfavorable tidings out of the north and east (Dan. 11:44), but before he can get back, No. 3 has already taken Jerusalem (Zech. 14:2; Dan. ll:40b-43a; cp. Zech. 12:2; 13:8-9) and started his return journey home. However, No. 3 is smitten by God upon the mountains of Israel (Zech. 14,3-4; Ezk. 38:21-39:4; cp. Sennacherib's destruction, Isa. 37:36-37) before No. 1b can return to Jerusalem and counterattack No. 3. But No. 3's invasion has laid open the eastern flank of No. 1b to attack (Euphrates "dried up," Rev. 16:12), so that
No. 4 “EAST” - The Kings of the EAST ("Sunrising," Dan. 11:44; Rev. 16:12) proceed westward with an army of 200 million men (Rev. 9:16), crunching through the eastern part of the empire with great destruction (Rev. 9:18). Meanwhile No. 1b hastens northward and deploys his army (now strengthened with legions from his ally in Rome, No. la) in the valley of Megiddo, readying for No. 4's assault.
CHART OF MILITARY ACTIVITIES OF THE FOUR WARRING AREAS OF EARTH, CLIMAXING IN ARMAGEDDON (see previous material for explanations)
Evidently the Kings of the East never actually join battle with Nos. la and b at Megiddo, as it would seem that "the sign of the Son of Man" then appears in the heavens (Mt. 24:29-30), diverting their attention from each other and leading to further blasphemy (Ps. 2:1-3). At this point the Lord Jesus Christ returns (Ps. 2:4-9) definitely smiting Nos. la and b (as told in Rev. 19:11-21, and as alluded to in Dan. ll:36d, 45b, with 12:1) and evidently also No. 4, for "Armageddon" (Rev. 16:16) is mentioned in the same context with the Kings of the East (Rev. 16:12).
EXPLANATORY NOTE ON THE IDENTIFICATION OF THE "HE'S" IN ll:40b-43
My solution is to make the "he's" of verses 40b-43 refer to the King of the North both in his own activity and that of his ally, the King of the South. I then bring the story back to the Willful King in verse 44, which reveals that while he will be fighting the King of the South, the King of the North has taken Jerusalem (vv. 40b-43). Hence, the Willful King, hearing these ill tidings out of the north (v.44) and hearing of the approaching march of the Kings of the East toward Palestine, completes the defeat of the King of the South and swiftly moves back north to deal with the King of the North and the Kings of the East. On returning, he finds the King of the North has been destroyed by the Lord upon the mountains of Israel. He re-establishes his palace in Jerusalem (v.45), then goes to Armageddon to make a stand against the Kings of the-East. But there he comes to his end, being smitten by the Lord Jesus Christ in His return to reign (v.45b).
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