Clarence E. Mason's "OLD
The History of Israel: Part
6c of 9
THE DIVIDED KINGDOM:
THE DYNASTY OF OMRI IN ISRAEL (Period 2, Northern), and
JUDAH DURING THE TIME OF THE DYNASTY OF OMRI
(End of Period 1; beginning of Period 2, Southern)
E. Mason, Jr.
Philadelphia College of
- DIVIDED KINGDOM (II)
- THE DYNASTY OF OMRI IN
ISRAEL (Period 2, Northern)
- Omri (12 years)
While little is said of Omri in the Bible, he is of great importance.
For 100 years after his time, the Assyrians called the reigning king
of Israel ben Omri (son of Omri), even though many of these kings
were not of Omri’s dynasty. The reason for this is Omri’s strengthening
of Israelite political power. Until his time Israel was hardly important
enough to be noticed by the great powers. Omri changed that. After
a bitter struggle for the throne, he built the city of Samaria and
made it his capital. The situation of Samaria made it ideal for the
Israelite capital. There was no good water supply, but Omri built
cisterns to catch the rain of the winter season, -and so successful
was this arrangement that (much later) the Assyrians had to besiege
Samaria three years before they could capture it.
- Ahab (22 years)
In Ahab’s reign occurs one of the greatest struggles recorded
in the Bible. It began when Ahab married Jezebel, the daughter of
the Phoenician king. The sophisticated Jezebel came from a wealthy
land. Her home town could almost be called the commercial capital
of the world. Her presence in the country-fied court of Samaria must
have caused great changes—all for the worse—for she brought with her
the worship of the Tyrian . baal Hadad, and of lady Asherah (translated
“groves, “ 1 Ki. 18), the mistress of the gods. This was the same
old Canaanite worship which Moses and Joshua commanded to be destroyed
Ahab was an altogether weak character, continually dominated by his
wife. Note her strong character whenever she enters the picture. Ahab
now promotes the worship of baal throughout Israel, thus precipitating
Israel into a grave spiritual crisis which leads to the work of Elijah
and the contest of Mt. Carmel (1 Ki. 17-19).
Elijah was undoubtedly one of the greatest Hebrew prophets and the
study of his life is very rewarding. He seems to have stopped the
greater part of the baal movement and to have brought real revival
to Israel. His ministry was that of a flaming evangelist.
Ahab fought a number of campaigns against Syria. In one of them (1
Ki. 22) he persuaded Jehoshaphat to join him. Jehoshaphat also joined
Ahab’s son Jehoram in a campaign against Moab. It would seem that
Jehoshaphat might better have refused such alliances. They brought
him nothing but trouble.
The affair of Naboth’s vineyard shows well Ahab’s and Jezebel’s characters
and indicates also that kingship among the Hebrews was not absolute,
but was always subject to the law of God. It is only when Naboth is
condemned by legal means (!) that he can be put out of the way.
Ahab fought a battle not mentioned in the Bible. In 852 B.C., two
years before Ahab’s death at Ramoth Gilead, Syria and Israel united
against a common enemy. Shalmaneser, king of Assyria, the rising empire
of that time, attacked the Westlands, and Israel and Syria were forced
to unite to stop him. Assyrian inscriptions mention Ahab, saying that
he furnished 2000 chariots, 10, 000 infantry. At Karkar, on the Orontes
River in Syria, the allies brought Shalmaneser to a standstill, thus
postponing Assyrian interference in the West.
- Ahaziah ben Ahab (2
An unimportant king. Distinguish the following kings with the
Ahab king of Israel succeeded by Ahaziah ben Ahab, succeeded by Jehoram
ben Ahab (brother of Ahaziah).
Jehoshaphat, king of Judah, succeeded by Jehoram ben Jehoshaphat,
succeeded by Ahaziah ben Jehoram.
Note: Joram is another
spelling of Jehoram.
Note: These kings were contemporaneous.
Note: The marriage of Jehoram of Judah to Athaliah of Israel made
Ahaziah and Jehoram of Israel brothers-in-law to Jehoram
of Judah and uncles to Ahaziah of Judah!
- Jehoram ben Ahab (12
During his reign Elisha succeeded Elijah, Archaeology has thrown
interesting light on Moab’s rebellion against Israel. A stone monument
has been found, set up in Mesha in Moab, celebrating his rebellion
and mentioning Omri and his son. He claims to have utterly vanquished
Israel. No doubt at the time he set up his stele it looked as though
he had. There is some uncertainty whether he inscribed it before or
after the battle referred to in 2 Kings 3, but it is certainly the
same Mesha mentioned there. The Moabite language is quite like Hebrew—a
sister tongue—showing that Israel had much in common with her neighbors.
(You may read about the Moabite Stone in WBD, pp.393, 403-404; “Moabite
Stone,” ISBE, pp. 2071-2072.)
Note in Jehoram’s reign
a renewal of the Syrian wars and Elisha’s part in them. Jehu’s revolt
brings to an end Jehoram’s life and Omri’s dynasty.
- JUDAH DURING THE TIME
OF THE DYNASTY OF OMRI (End of Period 1; beginning of Period 2, Southern)
Jehoshaphat continued on the throne of Judah during much of this period.
His compromising attitude shown in his alliances with Ahab and Ahaziah
has been noted; his successors suffered for it.
- Jehoram ben Jehoshaphat
An evil king, he married Ahab’s daughter Athaliah. During his
reign baalism was introduced into Judah.
- Ahaziah ben Jehoram
A wicked king who worshiped Baal. After reigning one year, Ahaziah
goes to Jezreel to visit his uncle Jehoram of Israel, who had been
wounded in battle with Syria. At that moment Jehu, an Israelite general,
revolted and slew both kings. Thus God judged both wicked, baal -worshiping
When Athaliah, the queen mother in Judah heard that her son Ahaziah
was killed she seized rule and sought to kill all the royal Judean
line. Her plan no doubt, was to do away with the Davidic line and
make Israelite -baal influence dominant in Judah. For six or seven
years she rules undisputedly. “Athaliah possessed the masculine courage
of her mother Jezebel and was equally unscrupulous in shedding blood.”
However, Jehosheba (daughter of king Jehoram of Judah and sister of
the now deceased Ahaziah) the wife of the good priest Jehoiada, hid
Joash, her nephew (a son of Ahaziah) in the temple, thus saving his
life. Joash was the only one of “seed royal” saved alive.
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