The Book of Micah
Chapter 4 Summarized:
Contents: The future kingdom of Christ on earth and Israel’s happy regathering. The Battle of Armageddon.
Conclusion: In the last days of the age, the Kingdom of Christ shall be manifested in the earth with a luster no earth kingdom has ever had. It will be a kingdom universal, peaceful, prosperous, and of the increase of Christ’s government, and peace there shall be no end. Israel, long dispersed and cast off, will have a place of glory in the earth, recognizing Christ as King and Lord.
Key Word: Mountain of the Lord, v. 1. Promises: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
Christ Seen: vv. 1, 2. A mountain in Scripture is a symbol of great earth power (Dan. 2:35). The ultimate establishment of Christ’s earthly kingdom is here foretold. Christ will be King (v. 7) to protect and govern it and to order its affairs for the best to the end of time.
Introduction: Comparing this chapter with the close of the foregoing chapter, the comfortable promises here with the terrible threatening there, we may, with the apostle, “behold the goodness and severity of God,” (Rom. 11:22), towards the Jewish church which fell, severity when Zion was ploughed as a field, but towards the Christian church, which was built upon the ruins of it, goodness, great goodness; for it is here promised,
That it shall be advanced
and enlarged by the accession of the nations to it (v.
That it shall be protected in tranquility and peace (v. 3, 4).
That it shall be kept close, and constant, and faithful to God (v. 5).
That under Christ’s government, all its grievances shall be redressed (v. 6, 7).
That it shall have an ample and flourishing dominion (v. 8).
That its troubles shall be brought to a happy issue at length (v. 9, 10).
That its enemies shall be disquieted, nay, that they shall be destroyed in and by their attempts against it (v. 11-13).
Extent and supremacy of Messiah’s kingdom (4:1—2)
Verse 1: But in the last days it shall come to pass, that the mountain of the house of the LORD shall be established in the top of the mountains, and it shall be exalted above the hills; and people shall flow unto it.
Micah 4:1-3 is almost identical with Isaiah 2:2-4. In the last days—denoting a time of indefinite future, though not primarily an eschatological term. But since this term is used in the context of Yahweh’s reign, it is clearly relating to end times. Micah was looking forward to a time when the messianic King would restore Israel’s fortunes and bring about Yahweh’s universal rule. His hope was not centered specifically in Israel’s return from exile, but in a much greater event.
The mountain of the house of the Lord—in 3:12, Mount Zion had been condemned to turn into a forest. When the Messiah comes to reign, the mountain will be filled with God’s glorious presence.
People shall flow unto it—People will go there for guidance from the Lord and to worship him.
Verse 2: And many nations shall come, and say, Come, and let us go up to the mountain of the LORD, and to the house of the God of Jacob; and he will teach us of his ways, and we will walk in his paths: for the law shall go forth of Zion, and the word of the LORD from Jerusalem.
The Lord will convict people of sin (John 16:8, 9) and correct them with his righteous judgment (Psa. 2:5, 9; 10:5, 6; Rev. 2:27; 12:5). People from all nations will be attracted to Jerusalem because God’s word will be spoken there.
Universal Peace (4:3)
Verse 3: And he shall judge among many people, and rebuke strong nations afar off; and they shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruninghooks: nation shall not lift up a sword against nation; neither shall they learn war any more.
All the instruments of war will be made into instruments of peace. Everyone will be able to work together in harmony. The land will yield abundantly because people will not be fighting but working to build up their land (Amos 9:13).
Universal prosperity (4:4)
Verse 4: But they shall sit every man under his vine and under his fig tree; and none shall make them afraid: for the mouth of the LORD of hosts hath spoken it.
Lord of hosts hath spoken—When God promises something, it will come to pass no matter how unlikely it may seem. Micah’s faith is based on nothing.
Universal religion (4:5)
Verse 5: For all people will walk every one in the name of his god, and we will walk in the name of the LORD our God for ever and ever.
The Jews should be encouraged by the prospect of enjoying peace and victory in their land again.
Walk in the name of the Lord—they will follow Yahweh after he has delivered them from all kinds of trouble. When the Jews were in Babylon they were cured of their desire to worship false gods; during this present time of trouble they will be cured of their unbelief so they can return to their homeland with pure hearts (Zech. 8:10-12).
Restoration of Israel to an eternal nation under the Messiah (5:6—8)
Verse 6: In that day, saith the LORD, will I assemble her that halteth, and I will gather her that is driven out, and her that I have afflicted;
Assemble her that halteth—the image is of a good shepherd gathering his weary sheep back into the fold. The Jews will have learned their lesson and will be weary from their long wanderings in exile. Then God will gather them in his arms of love and take them home (Jer. 13:17; Ezek. 34:13, 16; 37:21; Zeph. 3:19).
Verse 7: And I will make her that halted a remnant, and her that was cast far off a strong nation: and the LORD shall reign over them in mount Zion from henceforth, even for ever. Of the halting nation in exile, a remnant would be preserved to become a strong nation once again.
Lord shall reign . . . in . . . Zion—the people who remain and enter the Promised Land will never perish. David’s glorious kingdom will be restored in the person of Jesus Christ and will last forever (Isa. 9:6, 7).
Verse 8: And thou, O tower of the flock, the strong hold of the daughter of Zion, unto thee shall it come, even the first dominion; the kingdom shall come to the daughter of Jerusalem.
Jerusalem is called the tower from which the Good Shepherd can watch his flock. In large pastures a tower was often erected so that the shepherd could have an overview of the flock and watch them carefully. The church is now the flock that God watches from heaven.
Unto thee shall . . . come . . . the first dominion—everything that the nation experienced under David will be enjoyed again when the Messiah comes to reign?
First Babylonian captivity (4:9—10)
Verse 9: Now why dost thou cry out aloud? Is there no king in thee? Is thy counsellor perished? For pangs have taken thee as a woman in travail.
Is there no King in thee?—none. And why? Because thou hast rejected Jehovah thy king.
Is thy counsellor perished?—No: but thou hast rejected the words and advices of the prophets.
Pangs have taken thee—He is speaking of the desolations that should take place when the Chaldeans should come against the city; and hence he says, “Thou shalt go to Babylon;” ye shall be cast out of your own land, and sent slaves to a foreign country, He represents the people under the notion of a woman in travail.
Verse 10: Be in pain, and labour to bring forth, O daughter of Zion, like a woman in travail: for now shalt thou go forth out of the city, and thou shalt dwell in the field, and thou shalt go even to Babylon; there shalt thou be delivered; there the LORD shall redeem thee from the hand of thine enemies.
Be in pain, and labour—God does care for his people and does not enjoy seeing them suffer, but justice must be done.
Go forth out of the city . . . dwell in the field—they would no longer have the protection of their city walls; they would be defenseless in the open fields.
Babylon—Micah, like Isaiah, looks ahead of the present Assyrian threat to the coming captivity by Babylon (Isa. 39:7; 43:14; 48:20). False prophets would not have had this insight. It is also possible that Babylon’s mention here is not predictive. Babylon may simply have been a general term for Mesopotamia, its use looking back to Genesis 10:10 and 11:4-9, where Babylon represents the center of a godless world power.
There shalt thou be delivered—When all hope was gone, God would bring about their deliverance from bondage.
Enemies—the plural here suggests that Micah may not have been thinking of the Babylonian Empire, as such, but had a broader significance in mind.
How the kingdom will be set up (4:11-13)
Verse 11: Now also many nations are gathered against thee, that say, Let her be defiled, and let our eye look upon Zion.
Many nations are gathered against thee—The Chaldeans, who were composed of many nations. And, we may add, all the surrounding nations were their enemies; and rejoiced when the Chaldean army had overthrown Jerusalem, destroyed the temple, and led the people away captive.
Let her be defiled—this was their cry and their wish: Let Jerusalem is laid as low as she can be, like a thing defiled and cast away with abhorrence; that their eyes might look upon Zion with scorn, contempt, and exultation
Verse 12: But they know not the thoughts of the LORD, neither understand they his counsel: for he shall gather them as the sheaves into the floor.
Thoughts of the Lord—God’s plan was to punish the people and then restore them. The other nations could see only the immediate destruction of Israel.
Gather them as . . . sheaves—those who gathered themselves for Israel’s destruction will be gathered together and destroyed by the Lord. The threshing of sheaves was done by trampling them underfoot until the grain was ready to be separated from the chaff. The Lord will crush the nations that hate Israel and his feet of judgment will break them apart.
Verse 13: Arise and thresh, O daughter of Zion: for I will make thine horn iron, and I will make thy hoofs brass: and thou shalt beat in pieces many people: and I will consecrate their gain unto the LORD, and their substance unto the Lord of the whole earth.
Thine horn—in the ancient Near East, the strength of an ox was believed to lie in its horns. Horns of iron would multiply her strength and allow her to kill her enemies.
Hoofs brass—used to trample out the enemies just as an ox would use its hoofs to trample grain.
I will consecrate their gain unto the Lord—The Lord, rather than Israel, would be responsible for the victory. Therefore, all that is gained will belong to him.
The following material were used in the
preparation of these notes:
Quick Verse 2005: Matthew Henry's commentary, New Commentary on the whole Bible.
E-Source: Barn's notes
Bible Explore 4 (downloaded version): Strong's Hebrew-Greek, ISBE,
All Bible text is from the King James Version
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