Understanding The Bible
Clarence E. Mason's "DANIEL"
Part 2 of 2
Daniel 8:1-27

Dr. Clarence E. Mason, Jr.
Philadelphia College of Bible

The Book of Daniel

    1. Israel's experiences under the RAM (Persia) and GOAT (Greece) empires 8
      1. The vision 8:1 -14 (interpreted)
        1. The rise of the ram 1-4 (Medo-Persia)
        2. The rise of the he -goat 5-7 (Greece)
          The "notable horn" (v.5) is Alexander the Great.
          His swiftness of conquest is alluded to in the phrase:
          "touched not the ground. "
        3. The fourfold division of the he-goat (Grecian) kingdom at Alexander's death 8
          "Great horn was broken" (v.8) means Alexander's early death.
          "Four notable ones" are his four generals among whom his kingdom was divided (see notes on 11:5-20).
          "Out of one of them" (v.9), i.e., out of the Seleucids Nicator's "Syrian" kingdom to the north of Palestine (thus, phrase "king of the north"); "toward the south (Egypt), and toward the east (eastern) countries, and toward the pleasant land" (Palestine); signifies his military successes (see notes on 11:21-28).
        4. The (Grecian) "little horn" = Antiochus Epiphanies 9-14 Among other things, he desecrated the altar in the temple at Jerusalem (by sacrificing a sow). As a result, the temple lay desolate for quite a period of time (v. 13).
      2. The explanation 8:15-27
        1. Tile significance 15-19,26
          Certain details of the visions are for a period yet future to us ("many days") called "the time of the end" or "the end. " Therefore, when certain events of the chapter began to be fulfilled (e.g., 20-23), the saints were not to look for total fulfillment then, for some is reserved for Israel's end-time--particularly the last 3 1/2 years of the 70th Week.
        2. THE NEAR VIEW 20-23 (from Medo-Persia to Antiochus Epiphanies (from Medo-Persia to Antiochus Epiphanies)
          (1) Ram = Media & Persia 20
          (2) Goat = Greece 2 la
          (3) Great Horn = Alexander the first king 21b
          (4) Division of kingdom at Alexander's death 22
          "that (horn) being broken" - means Alexander being dead. Four kingdoms rose out of the one kingdom, headed by his four generals. See detailed notes on 11:5-20. "But not in his power" - they did not have the brilliance of military power and rulership that Alexander exhibited
          (5) The overlap verse (v.23) -- Antiochus Epiphanies characterized by fierceness, wickedness, duplicity, like end-time Man of Sin.
        3. THE FAR VIEW 23-27
          These verses prophesy concerning Satan's end-time superman who is the antitype of Antiochus Epiphanies, the type (vv.9-14 above).





  1. Not to be confused with "the notable horn" of verses 5, 8, 21-22, who is Alexander the Great, who lived and died somewhat before the rise of "the little horn" of verses 9,23-25.
  2. Not to be confused with "the little horn" of chapter 7_ (7:8,11, 20-21), because the man of chapter 8 in the near view is plainly a man who comes out of the THIRD kingdom (8:8-9, 23), whereas the man of chapter 7 comes up amid the ten horns (7:7-8,24-27), which represent the final, end-time form of the FOURTH king­dom (cp. with the 10 toes of chapter 2).

    Further, since the K) horns do represent the final form of the FOURTH (Western) kingdom, it is doubtful if there is any near-view application at all of the "little horn" of chapter 7 (only far view).

    Therefore, in the near view, the "little horn" of chapter 8 is "the king of the north" (Seleucid dynasty), identified by all expositors as Antiochus Epiphanies (8:9-14, 23; cp. 11:21-35). This sinister man was an arch enemy of Israel. He was characterized by craft and deceit; his personality was awesome and convincing. He was a cruel, crushing, enigmatic person, filled with hate for the Jews.

    Undoubtedly 8:10-14 and 23 overlap the type, Antiochus Epiphanies, with his antitype of the future, who will heighten all his evil qualities.


  1. It is my conviction that the man in the far view could not be the (Roman) Western FOURTH Empire leader, residing in Rome and identified as la on the chart of movement of armies, found later in this syllabus in connection with chapter 11. See New Scofield note on 8:9 for detail.
  2. The more natural interpretation would be to make the antitype of the future to be a man arising out of the "north" in the end-time, corresponding to the near-view "king of the north, " Antiochus Epiphanies, of the THIRD kingdom. If this inter­pretation is taken, the far view future projection of the historical king of the north (Antiochus) would be the end-time king of the north, the Chief Prince of Rosh (Russia), as per Ezekiel 38:13 (New Scofield, margin 1). This future invader of Palestine will be destroyed supernaturally by the Lord on the mountains of Israel (Ezk. 38:18-39:4), as the army of the historical king of the north in an earlier time, Sennacherib, was supernaturally destroyed (Isa. 37:36-37).

    He is called "the Assyrian" in Isaiah 10:24-25 and 14:24-25, and Gog and Magog with headquarters in Meshech (Moscow-west) and Tubal (Tobolsk-east), Ezekiel 38:1-2;39:2. He is called "king of the north" in Daniel 11:40.

    This future man will be a rival to the Roman Beast and his ally, the Jewish apostate False Prophet (Rev. 13:11-18). Indeed, it is the eastern part of the FOURTH (Western) kingdom land in its final 10 toes/10 horns form which the king of the north invades.

    This is a very natural interpretation and I formerly gave this view priority.

  3. However, when we come later to chapter 11, most premillennialists make a shift from the historical king of the north (Antiochus Epiphanies) in 11:21-35 to a future Willful King at verses 36-39, no matter whom they identify as the Willful King. I have previously confidently identified him as the Jewish apostate leader in Jerusalem (the False Prophet of Rev. 13:11-18) who is allied to the Roman Beast of Rev. 13:1-10. I do this because this Willful King is attacked by both "the king of the south" and "the king of the north" (Dan. 11:40). (See chart appearing later in notes on Daniel 11.) It would seem ridiculous to make the Willful King of 11:36-39 to be the future "king of the north," for why would he attack himself?!!

    In chapter 11, we have the rather extensive prophecy concerning near-view kings (of the third empire) who followed Alexander the Great and climaxed in Antiochus Epiphanies (11:21-35), only to abruptly be introduced to "the Willful King, " an end-time character of the FOURTH revived Western (Roman) kingdom.

    In my more recent study, I have been increasingly impressed that in chapter 8 we may well have the same sudden switch as in chapter 11, from near view to far view, due to the fact that the Church age, although known to God and in His plan, is never pre-announced by Old Testament prophets (Mt. 13:16-17,35; 1 Pet. 1:10-12).

    If this be the case, chapter 8 would parallel chapter 11, in much the same way that chapter 2 parallels chapter 7. The latter two chapters (2 and 7) foretell the four world kingdoms beginning with Nebuchrezzar II and concluding with events leading up to the second coming of Christ.

    In chapters 8 and 11, all expositors agree that the climactic figure in the near view is Antiochus Epiphanies. Why may not the sinister far view end-time figure in both chapters be the same man, none other than the second Beast of Revelation 13, the False Prophet, the antitype of Antiochus, whose subtlety and ferocity against the Jews make him an apt illustration of Satan's monster who double-crosses his own people in the midst of the 70th Week of Daniel 9, breaking his treaty with them and precipitating the Great Tribulation.

    Only views 2 and 3 are real options to me, and I lean toward this third view.


        1. The effect on Daniel 27
          The suffering his people were going to have to pass through became so real to him that he suffered with them in heart so fully he actually became sick. This is a high and holy experience

    1. The time-table of Israel's future revealed to Daniel 9
      1. The occasion: Jeremiah's prophecy (of the 70-year captivity) fulfilled 1-2
        Compare 2 Chr. 36:21; Jer. 25:8,11
      2. The method of obtaining the revelation: confession and supplication 3-24
        1. The prayer commenced: confession of Israel's sin 3-14
        2. The prayer concluded: plea for Israel's restoration 15-19
        3. The prayer crowned: the promise of Israel's redemption within 70 heptads: (70 x 7 = 490 years) 20-24 ["weeks" of years, Gen. 29:27]
      3. The details of the 70 heptads (sevens) 25-27
        1. 69 heptads (69 x 7), or 483 years, till Messiah the Prince 25a The 70 heptads begin: Not with Cyrus' decree (Ezra 1)
          Nor with Darius's decree (Ezra 6)
          But with Artaxerxes' decree (to rebuild wall, Neh. 2)
          From this time, till Jesus entered Jerusalem "Palm Sunday" as King, only to be rejected and crucified five days later, was 483 years, according to Sir Robert Anderson's expert calculations in his book The Coming Prince.
        2. The twofold division of the 69 heptads (483 years) 25b-26a _7 heptads (7x7), or 49 years, in Nehemiah's (troublous) times during which the wall was rebuilt, plus ... 62 heptads (62x7), or 434 years more, till Messiah is "cut off" at cross. Hence, 62+7 "weeks" = 69 x 7 = 483 years.

          NOTE: The uncounted parenthesis of the Church Age, between the cross and the rapture, comes in between the 69th heptad and the 70th heptad.

        3. The final week 26b-27
          Characterized by: troublous times
          (The sanctuary shall be destroyed - sometime after the 69th heptad by "the people of the prince -that-shall-come. " Since the Romans destroyed the temple in AD 70, during the paren­thesis of the Church age, it is therefore proved that this prince who makes the covenant will be a Roman prince, the head of the last form of the Roman (fourth) Empire.)
          A covenant for 1 heptad is made for 7 years, the seventieth heptad or "week, " between the Roman prince and the Jewish people in Palestine, permitting sacrifice in a restored temple. (See notes on chapter 2, under "Revived Rome.")
          A broken covenant in the midst of the "week" - 3 1/2 years (by means of "an abomination" = idol set up in the temple. (See Rev. 13:14-15.)
          No sacrifice during remainder of "week, " final 31/2 years, which will be "The Great Tribulation" (Mt. 24:15, 21) already referred to (v.26b).
          The desolator destroyed 27
          (By return of Christ, as elsewhere revealed, 2 Thes. 2; Rev. 19)



NOTE: Learn this chart!




  1. "to finish transgression" = the sin of Israel brought to a climax in the rejection of their Messiah and acceptance of Anti-Christ.
  2. "to make an end of sins" = God's judgment on those apostates who accept Anti-Christ.

"to make reconciliation for iniquity" = the basis for reconciliation was provided in the cross, but reconciliation cannot be made by Israel with God until God's Israel repents (cp. difference between available and actual, 1 Tim. 4:10a &_ b; 2 Cor. 5:19 & 20).

  1. "to bring in everlasting righteousness" = the establishment of the long-promised Messianic Kingdom reign of Christ at His return, when He overthrows Anti­christ. The mediatorial kingdom of 1000 years feeds into the eternal kingdom.
  2. "to seal up the vision and prophecy" = because there is no further need for propliecy. When Christ returns. He will see that all is fulfilled.
  3. "to anoint the Most Holy (Place)"--not person = Restored Millennial Temple substituted for the temple which is defiled in the midst of the 70th Week by the abomination of desolation (image: Rev. 13:11-18).

The covenant which brings in the 70th heptad (week) is not made until after v.26. Hence, the covenant (treaty) cannot be made until after the destruction of the city (Jerusalem) and its sanctuary (temple) in AD 70 (prophesied in 26b).


  1. Could not be IN the 69 weeks because it occurs after Messiah is "cut off" (cross) 26a
  2. Could not be IN the 70th week because v.27 indicates that sacrifice will be carried on in a temple in Jerusalem in harmony with the covenant for "one" week, permitting restoration of sacrifice. That temple must be standing in the middle of the 70th week (v.27b), if it is to be defiled by the abomination of desolation (image, Rev. 13:14; Mt. 24:15), thus stopping sacrifice (v.27b). But that temple is not destroyed in the 70th week because the image of the Beast is worshipped IN it during the last 3 1/2 years (cp. 2Thes. 2:4; Rev. 13:11-18).
  3. The temple referred to in v.26b cannot be destroyed AFTER the 70th week because the millennial temple (Ezk. 40-48) will be a place of constant worship of Christ the King-Priest, and since Christ is reigning during the 1000 years, no one can overthrow Him or the temple, though an unsuccessful attempt will be made when the 1000 years are ended (Rev. 20:7-10).

    THEREFORE, THE DESTRUCTION OF THE TEMPLE OF v.26b MUST BE BETWEEN THE CLOSE OF THE 69th WEEK (Messiah "cut off "--i.e., the cross), AND THE OPENING OF THE 70th WEEK (i.e., confirmation of the covenant permitting restoration of temple worship). Thus, there is a gap or intercalation between 69th and 70th weeks (e.g., 1 Pet. 1:10-12; Mt. 13; Eph. 3; Col. 1; etc.).

    1. Daniel's last: vision (in third year of Cyrus) 10-12 (prophetic history in detail)
      1. The preparation of the prophet Daniel 10:1-18
        1. Daniel's mourning and fast 1-3
          As result of the things (v. 1) revealed to him concerning his people's vicissitudes in days to come, both immediate (11:1-35) and distant (11:36-12:13).
        2. The occasion: a Christophany 4-18
          (1) The Christophany: i.e., appearance of Christ in preincarnate form 4-9 (cp. Rev. 1 - Vision of Risen Christ) Parenthesis: A mighty angel reports why he has been delayed in answering Daniel's prayer 10-15 (cp. Eph. 6:10-12," world rulers of this darkness")
          (2) Again, the Christophany 16-17
          Parenthesis: A mighty angel strengthens Daniel 18
          (cp. Lk. 22:43; Heb. 1:14)
          He is prepared for the revelation concerning his people Israel's future (cp. v. 14; "latter days ... many days").
      2. The mighty angel's message: The future of Daniel's people Israel (10:14) 10:19-12:13
        1. THE SIXTY-NINE WEEKS 10:19-11:35
          The Second (Medo-Persian) and Third (Grecian) Empires ... "even to (but not into) the time of the end" (i.e., to, but not into 70th week).
          (1) The mighty angel's fight against Satan's "’prince’ - ipality" over Persia (and later Satan's "’prince’-ipality" over Greece) to insure that God's plan is not thwarted but fulfilled 10:19-ll:2a
          (2) Prophetic details concerning the history of the Second (Medo-Persian) and Third (Grecian) Empires ll:2b-35
          ..... (a) PERSIA 11: 2b and c"
          ..... v.2b: The three Persian kings following Cyrus II the Great (559-530), Ezra 1:1, will be:
          .......... Cyrus' son, Carnbyses II, 530-522
          .......... (Ahasuerus of Ezra 4:6?)
          .......... Gaumata, an imposter
          .......... (Artaxerxes, Ezra 4:7?)
          .......... And Darius I Hystaspes, 522-486 (Ezra 5-6)
          .......... Beginning with Darius I, Persian kings' palaces were at Persepolis, at: Ecbatana (summer residence), and Susa (Shushan), winter capital,
          ..... v.2c: The fourth, Xerxes I the Great (486-465) will surpass them. (He did. Some think he is Artaxerxes I, 465-423.)
          ..... (b) GREECE 11:3-35
          .......... i. But a mighty king shall arise - -Alexander the Great
          .......... (334 BC at age 20) 3a
          .......... ii. His dominion shall be great 3b
          ..........Greece, Asia Minor, Syria, Tyre, Philistia, Samaria, Judea, Egypt, Medo-Persia, and India. (Alexander overcame last Persian king, Darius III, 335-331.)
          .......... iii. At the height of his power, he dies (323 BC at age 32) 4
          .......... He left the kingdom to his four generals, "not to his posterity, " "not according to his dominion, " i.e., divided into much smaller fragments.
          .......... iv. Of these FOUR kingdoms, two will concern Daniel's people 5-20
          .......... Syria and Armenia (on the NORTH) in hands of Seleucids Nicator (and his successors), and Egypt (on the SOUTH) in the hands of Ptolemy I Soter (sometimes called Lagus or a son of Lagus) and his successors. The kings of these two countries are listed below.
          .......... These will war with one another almost continually, and Palestine (located between the two and thus determining the directions "north" and "south") will be the battleground, suffering from invasions, regardless of which of the two wins.
          .......... (The other two kingdoms—not particularly affecting Palestine-­were Cassander over Macedonia and Greece, and Lysimachus over Thrace, Bithynia, and Mysia.) Very shortly only three of the kingdoms remained.

EGYPT - Ptolemies (South)

  SYRIA - Seleucids (North)
11:5 Ptolemy I Soter 321-285 BC 11:5 Seleucids I Nicator 312-281 BC
11:6 Ptolemy II Philadelphus 285-246 BC Antiochus I Soter 281-261 BC
11:7-8 Ptolemy III Euergetes I 246-222 BC 11:6 Antiochus II Theos 261-246 BC
11:11-12, 14 Ptolemy IV Philopator 222-203 BC 11:9 Seleucids II Callinicus 246-226 BC
11:14-24 Ptolemy V Epiphanies 203-181 BC 11:10 Seleucids III Ceraunus (Soter) 226-223 BC
Ptolemy VI Philometer
(and others till it became a Roman province in 30 BC)



181-146 BC 11:10 Antiochus III the Great
(Also, 11:12-14, 16-18)
223-187 BC
11:20 Seleucids IV Philopator 187-175 BC
11:21-25 Antiochus IV Epiphanies
("illustrious" - called Epimanes, Epimanes, "madman")
Epimanes, "madman")
175-164 BC
Antiochus V Eupator 164-162 BC
Demetrius I Soter 162-150 BC
Alexander I Balas
(and others till Philippus II, when Pompey made it a Roman Province in 64 BC

150-145 BC

[Cleopatra became queen jointly with Ptolemy XIV (51-47 BC) and

dominated the closing part of this period until her death in 30 BC]


SUMMARY OF ACTIVITIES OF SOME KINGS IN TABLE ON PAGE 24 11:5-20 See New Scofield, pp.915-916, for helpful identifications

  1. The rise of Syria 5
    Seleucids I Nicator was at first simply a subordinate of Ptolemy I Soter I's Egyptian Empire, which included Syria, but in time Seleucids' Syrian kingdom gained its independence and became greater than the Ptolemaic kingdom.
  2. An attempt for peace 6
    Laodice, former wife of Antiochus II Theos, was divorced by agreement. Also, the Egyptian princess Berenice was given in marriage to Antiochus II Theos by Ptolemy II Philadelphus in an attempt to secure peace. The effort failed.
  3. An Egyptian victory 7-9 (under Ptolemy III Euergetes I)
  4. Antiochus the Great 10-19
    1. Unsuccessful invasion of Egypt 10-12
    2. Victories in Israel 's land 13-16
    3. Strategy to obtain Egypt (by marriage) 17
      But his daughter was loyal to her Egyptian husband rather than her Syrian father.
    4. An invasion of Greece 18
      One of the Roman Scipios defeated him and turned Rome's conquering face eastward.
    5. An ignominious death 19
      Killed while attempting to plunder a temple on the way home from Greece.
  5. The "Raiser of Taxes" - Seleucids IV Philopater 20
    The son of Antiochus the Great had to raise the taxes for tribute exacted by Rome. He plundered the temple at Jerusalem for this purpose.

Now, back to our outline:

        ..... (b) GREECE 11:3-35 (continued)
        .......... v. The Syrian king who will particularly hurt Israel = Antiochus Epiphanies 11:21-35
        ...............(A) His rise 21-24
        .................... (i) His enthronement 21
        .................... (ii) His successes and deceit 22-24
        ...............(B) His warfare with Egypt 25-30a
        .................... (i) The first expedition - success 25-27
        .....................(ii) Exploits against Israel 28 (cp. 8:10)
        .....................(iii) Second expedition against Egypt - failure 29-30a ("Chittim" = west; literally, "isles"; in this case, Greece and Rome, who assisted Egypt.)
        ..........(C) His blasphemies against the God of Israel 30b-35
        ..................... (i) Antiochus's conspiracy with the apostate Jews 30, 32a
        ..................... (ii) The pollution of the temple and sacrifices 31 This "abomination of desolation" lasted for 2300 days (8:13-14); a yet future "abomination of desolation" (12:11; Mt. 24:15 and Rev. 13:14-15) is illustrated by this historical account of Antiochus.
        ..................... (iii) Persecution of the faithful Jews 32b-35
        ................ The events of these passages are not only literal, but typical, and blend with another defilement of the temple in the end-time (70th Week) by Jewish leader, who will likewise divide Israel into two groups --the apostate and the faithful.

(An INTERVAL between Antiochus and his antitype, the Jewish leader in Jerusalem, occurs between verses 35 and 36, similar to the gap between Daniel's 69th and 70th weeks.)

        1. THE SEVENTIETH WEEK (the time of the end) 11:36-39
          1. The WILLFUL KING DESCRIBED 11:36-39
            “Who is this man?"

            Some identify him with Antiochus Epiphanies, but this is impossible for he will be present "at the time of the end" (Tribulation), v.40. Some identify him as the King of the North ("the little horn" of Daniel 8, "The Assyrian") of whom Antiochus is a type, but this is impossible since verse 40 says the King of the North will come against the Willful King.

            Others identify him with the Roman Emperor, the "little horn" of Daniel 7 and "the prince-that-shall-come" of Daniel 9, but the only similarities are: (1) He will be prominent in the end-time (but so will others); (2) He will be blasphemous (but why should this be true of him alone?). And, although the Roman leader will have special relation to the land of Palestine, it is nowhere intimated that he will make his abode there, as this passage indicates (v.45), by mentioning kings to the north and south (of Palestine) coming against him (in Palestine).

            The "Willful King" is none other than the apostate Jewish leader. He will be allied to the Roman ruler and make an image of him (Rev. 13:11-15 with Dan. 11:38), commanding all to worship it (evidently the image will be made of "gold, silver, and precious stones, " v.38). Although it is possible that in v.37 "God of Ills fathers" may refer to an apostate. Christian, it would far more naturally apply to a Jewish Anti-Christ. Likewise, "the desire of women" would have all the more force if interpreted as a Jewish Anti-Christ's ignoring of the true Messiah, in view of the historic "desire of (all Jewish) women" to be the mother of Messiah. The signs and wonders he will cause the image to produce (Rev. 13:13, 15) are indicated in v.39; and lie anticipates Messiah's rewards to His faithful at His coining (Isa. 40:10; 62:11) by rewarding those apostates faithful to him, dividing the land of Palestine among them (v.39b "for gain" = "reward"). Finally, the lofty pretensions of this Jewish apostate leader (v.36), in which he will share with the Roman ruler but exceed him, are such that Paul applies to, yea almost quotes, the Man of Sin in 2 Thes. 2:3-4.

            This "Willful King" will have his headquarters at Jerusalem (v. 45) and it is against him personally and primarily (though allied with Roman ruler) that the kings of the South (v.40a), then the North (v . 40b), then the East (v.44a, Rev. 9:14-16; 16:12) will lead their armies. Because of his pretentious claims, they will challenge him and bring discomfiture to him.


            Contrary to the usual conception often heard, in the end-time there will be not one but four great spheres of authority, backed up by military might. Evidently the very pretensions of the loud-mouthed "beast," heading the revived fourth empire (Rev. 13:4-7), will arouse the resentment and antagonism of leaders of three other areas: south, north, and east. At any event, Jerusalem as the eastern capital of the fourth (western) empire, presided over by the "beast's" associate (second beast or false prophet of Rev. 13), will be like a mighty magnet drawing armies toward Jerusalem that God may destroy them (Zech. 12:2-3, 7-9). The four political areas of the world to be distinguished arc listed below and their movements charted on page 29 (The following Chart - Ed.).


No. 1 “WEST” - The Jewish "Willful King" in Jerusalem (Dan. 11:45, labeled 1b on p. 29) is allied to the Head of Revived Fourth (Western or Roman) Empire (Dan. 2:40-43; 7:7-8) whose headquarters are in Rome (labeled la in chart on p. 29).

No. 2 “SOUTH” - The King of the SOUTH who "pushes at" No. 1b (Dan. ll:40a), located in Jerusalem. No. 2 seems to be allied with No. 3 (Dan. ll:43h: Ezk. 38:5-6) and his attack is evidently designed to draw No. 1b out of position (with his back to the north). No. 2 initially succeeds in capturing Egypt with the especial help of Ethiopia and Libya (Dan. 11:42-43; Ezk. 38:5). In the meantime

No. 3 “NORTH” - The King of the NORTH (the Assyrian, Gog-Magog, Isa. 10:24-27; 14:25; Mic. 5:5-6; Ezk. 38-39) then swoops down, while No. 1b has turned south to protect his flank against No. 2. (No. 1b is evidently soon able to neutralize the armies of No. 2, for we hear no more of No. 2). This accomplished. No. 1b hastens back to Palestine because of unfavorable tidings out of the north and east (Dan. 11:44), but before he can get back, No. 3 has already taken Jerusalem (Zech. 14:2; Dan. ll:40b-43a; cp. Zech. 12:2; 13:8-9) and started his return journey home. However, No. 3 is smitten by God upon the mountains of Israel (Zech. 14,3-4; Ezk. 38:21-39:4; cp. Sennacherib's destruction, Isa. 37:36-37) before No. 1b can return to Jerusalem and counter­attack No. 3. But No. 3's invasion has laid open the eastern flank of No. 1b to attack (Euphrates "dried up," Rev. 16:12), so that

No. 4 “EAST” - The Kings of the EAST ("Sunrising," Dan. 11:44; Rev. 16:12) proceed westward with an army of 200 million men (Rev. 9:16), crunching through the eastern part of the empire with great destruction (Rev. 9:18). Meanwhile No. 1b hastens northward and deploys his army (now strengthened with legions from his ally in Rome, No. la) in the valley of Megiddo, readying for No. 4's assault.




Evidently the Kings of the East never actually join battle with Nos. la and b at Megiddo, as it would seem that "the sign of the Son of Man" then appears in the heavens (Mt. 24:29-30), diverting their attention from each other and leading to further blasphemy (Ps. 2:1-3). At this point the Lord Jesus Christ returns (Ps. 2:4-9) definitely smiting Nos. la and b (as told in Rev. 19:11-21, and as alluded to in Dan. ll:36d, 45b, with 12:1) and evidently also No. 4, for "Armageddon" (Rev. 16:16) is mentioned in the same context with the Kings of the East (Rev. 16:12).

My solution is to make the "he's" of verses 40b-43 refer to the King of the North both in his own activity and that of his ally, the King of the South. I then bring the story back to the Willful King in verse 44, which reveals that while he will be fighting the King of the South, the King of the North has taken Jerusalem (vv. 40b-43). Hence, the Willful King, hearing these ill tidings out of the north (v.44) and hearing of the approaching march of the Kings of the East toward Palestine, completes the defeat of the King of the South and swiftly moves back north to deal with the King of the North and the Kings of the East. On returning, he finds the King of the North has been destroyed by the Lord upon the mountains of Israel. He re-establishes his palace in Jerusalem (v.45), then goes to Armageddon to make a stand against the Kings of the-East. But there he comes to his end, being smitten by the Lord Jesus Christ in His return to reign (v.45b).

            A comparison of Revelation 12:7-13:18 with this passage indicates what is meant.

            Although Michael increases the suffering of the true Jewish remnant by casting Satan down to earth, yet it is a necessary prelude (of testing and purification) to Satan's final overthrow (Rev. 20:1-3) and the Jewish remnant's resurrection and reign with Messiah (v.2 with Rev. 20:4-6). Michael will watch over and fight for God's Israel.

            Although some expositors have interpreted verse 2 as also including "spiritual resurrection" (revivication) of Israel, The New ScofieId Bible is correct in interpreting this as the national, physical resur­rection of saved Jews of the age of Law and of the "70th week" Tribulation martyrs (Ezekiel 37 and Isaiah 26:12-19). The stronger hermeneutical evidence points that way.

            The "time of the end" is basically anytime after the first 69 weeks are completed. One would naturally expect this to be in and during the 70th Week, of which the latter half of 3 1/2 years (THE Great Tribulation) is pre-eminently The Time of The End, and most of the prophecies con­cerning- the Time of the End are, therefore, yet future. BUT inasmuch as anything after the 69th Week is basically "time of the end, " the intrusion of the intercalation of this Church age, between the 69th and 70th Week of Daniel, causes this age to share some of the prophecies of the time of the end, and the book of Revelation (22:10) takes the seal off of the book of Daniel (thus "increasing knowledge" so that God's people need not "run to and fro" after the pretended knowledge of false teachers and false prophets, 2 Pet. 2:1). Thus, in a certain basic sense, we have been in "the time of the end" ever since the cross, in that there is nothing which God has revealed which must happen before our Lord returns and the events of Daniel's 70th Week begin. Note the NT lan­guage (1 Pet. 1:20; 4:7; 2 Pet. 3:3; Heb. 1:2; 1 Jn. 2:18; Jude 18; Jas- 5:3,8,9; 1 Cor. 10:11; etc.).

        1. AN APPENDIX TO THE PROPHECY 12:5-13
          The mighty angel's message, begun in 10:19 [see p. 23, 2] is now completed. This awe-inspiring messenger introduced in chapter 10 is still with Daniel, but two other angels appear on the scene also, one standing on each bank of the river (v.5), and in their further conversation we obtain a few added details about the Great Tribulation (vv.6-13).

          First, its duration, "time, times, and a half" = "time" - 1 year;
          "times'" - 2 years; "half a time" - 1/2 year = 3 1/2 years
          (v.7; cp. 7:25; 9:27; Rev. 11:2-3; 12:14).

          Second, a further word about "the end. " "The abomination that maketh desolate" will mark the beginning of this 3 1/2 year period. The days are counted from that point (v. 11 with 9:27; Mt. 24:15; Rev. 13:14; 2 Thes. 2:4). Reaction to this blasphemy will be the testing principle which will divide Israel into the "wicked" (apostates who worship the image of the Beast) and the "wise" (faithful who refuse to worship the Beast), v. 10.

          Third, encouragements and instructions by means of certain periods of days are given for those who v/ill live in that period. Though somewhat unintelligible to us, they will not be to them. However, note that 3 1/2 years equals 1260 days; that verse 11 speaks of a period lasting 30 days beyond this 1260 days, possibly devoted by Messiah to purging out from His Kingdom "all things that: offend and do iniquity"; and that verse 12 speaks of a period of 1335 days, 75 beyond the 1260, which some have suggested would carry on to the time of the celebration of the first Feast of Tabernacles in the Millennium, as revealed in Zechariah 14. At any event, the kingdom is fully established in power and glory by that time, and blessed is he who does not yield to the Apostate False Prophet (of Rev. 13:1 1-18) and his idolatrous sacrifice, but waits for the true Messiah and His true  (restored) temple and its worship.


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