Robert Duncan Culver


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Dr. Robert Duncan Culver

XI.            Chapter 11: A Summary of Old Testament Eschatology

A.     Introduction

Though effort has been made to avoid using the technical term, "eschatology," and its relative, "eschatological," it has appeared a few times in these studies, and there it now stands in the title of this last study in Daniel. So, it must be defined. Almost all of the technical terms of theology come from the ancient Greek language. This is because the early Christian theologians spoke and wrote in Greek—before Latin became the official language of the Western branch of Christendom. "Theology,” itself, is one of those terms. Now, the common Greek word for "last" or "last thing" is eschatos (pronounced es-ka-tos). The Greek word for a treatise, word, or discussion is logos. Put the two words together, and, with a bit of abbreviation and the addition of an English word-ending the result is "eschatology," the study or treatment of last things. These topics are firstly those relating to the ulti­mate future of men personally, such as death, the intermediate state between death and resurrection, resurrection, judgment, heaven, hell, etc; matters relating to the future of the human race, such as the second coming of Christ, the great tribulation, the Antichrist, etc.

Inasmuch as the whole Bible is related to man's ultimate destiny, designed by God to lead men into eternal life, it is all eschatological in a general way. Yet, inasmuch as these last portions of the book of Daniel relate specifically to technically eschatological questions, it is eschatology in a narrow sense. Light on a number of questions and topics only slightly treated in earlier portions of the Bible is here brightened. Information on some others is here for the first time clearly introduced.

We are again living in a time when matters of eschatology are considered to be respectable subjects for the consideration of sober men. For a good while after the opening years of World War II even prophetically inclined pastors and churches avoided eschatological themes—for reasons to be discussed just a bit later. Perhaps the meeting of the World Council of Churches at Evanston in the summer of 1954, when the theme was the second coming of Christ and related matters, has done as much as anything to "rehabilitate" the subject in the pop­ular mind. But even greater is the divinely implanted interest of men, whose "passion" is "for eternity" and in whose breasts "hope springs eternal"! Men want to know about the future. In the face of death we are forced to think about it. When the course of history appears to be moving rapidly on toward some consummation, as it is today, men cannot help but be interested in eschatology.

B.      Prophecy Concerning the Future "Willful King" (11:36-45)

Somewhere in this prophecy between the end of verse four of chapter eleven and the opening of chapter 12 the prediction shifts from the historic kingdoms of antiquity to "last things." Interpre­ters are generally agreed in this, but they greatly disagree as to just where the break comes. Dr. S. P. Tregelles, a learned and devout scho­lar of a century ago who is still highly regarded today though rarely read, felt that the break between "that which is long past and that which is future" came at the end of verse four. Beginning with verse five, and on to the end of the book, all would then be “eschatology.” Dr. Keil thought that beginning with the mention of the “vile person” at verse 21 the last prophecy becomes typical of the eschatological Antichrist, and that end-time events occupy the interest for the rest of the book.

B. W. Newton and G. H. Pember felt that change comes in verse 34 and 36, and from thence the topics are eschatological. There are others who think the shift is at the end of chapter 11. The shift comes some­where in the chapter, for while chapter eleven begins with ancient predictions about ancient Persia and Greece, at its end [692] transition has been made to the resurrection of the dead, final judg­ments and rewards, and other clearly final events. Where is the break?

                     i.            As indicated by my expository divisions it is my opinion that the break comes between verses 35 and 36. If the student has carefully read chapters 11 and 12, the following summary of arguments should be sufficient to demonstrate that this division is at least feasible. A fact strongly in favor of this view is that a majority of reverent scho­lars have favored it. Jerome states that this portion was applied to Antichrist by "our writers" in his day, and he, himself, favored the in­terpretation.

                   ii.            The scope of the prophecy, as indicated by the words of Gabriel [693] demands eschatological prophecy somewhere in this part of Daniel, for he said that it was for "the latter days." This alone makes our view a possibility.

                  iii.            All of chapter 11, down to verse 35, can be shown to relate to rather well-known events of the ancient history of Syria and Egypt. It is, as most scholars admit, quite impossible to find such correspon­dence between any known events of antiquity and 11:36-45. It is logi­cal then to suppose it to refer to some other period.

                  iv.            The mention in verse 36 of a king who shall prosper till the “indignation be accomplished” suggests end times. “The indignation” is a technical term out of the predictive literature of the Old Testament usually naming an end-time settling.[694]

                   v.            Of much greater weight is the fact that this section contains predictions which correspond quite precisely with many other unques­tionable predictions of the coming Antichrist. See especially the second chapter of II Thessalonians and the thirteenth and seventeenth chapters of Revelation. This outlook has the support of most recent evangelical writers.

                  vi.            For those sufficiently interested to give the passage thorough study, it will be important to note that there is a natural break in thought at verse 36, a break observed by the paragraphing of both the American Standard Version and the Revised Standard Version, as well as other translations.

                vii.            Though not of decisive force, the phrase, "at the time of the end"[695] supports our view; i.e., that the transition to eschatology has been passed.

               viii.            Of decisive force, in my opinion, is the connection indicated between chapters 11 and 12. Chapter 12 begins, "And at that time." There follow the Great Tribulation, the resurrection of the dead and the final reward of the righteous—certainly eschatological if anything is. So the last part of chapter 11, at least, is eschatological—for it is “at the same time.” This is of decisive importance. The best place to make the break before the beginning of chapter 12 is between verses 33 and 36, for here is introduced a new king who does "according to his will" and who seems to be neither the king of the north nor the king of the south who are being discussed in the preceding section.

And the king shall do according to his will; and he shall exalt himself above every god, and shall speak marvelous things against the God of gods, and shall prosper till the indignation be accomplished: for that is deter­mined shall be done. (Daniel 11:36)

This is the same as the "son of perdition" referred to in II Thessalonians, where it is said that as "man of sin" he "opposeth and exalteth himself above all that is called God, or that is worshipped; so that he sitteth in the temple of God, showing himself that he is God".[696] Paul places his appearing just before our Savior’s own second coming.[697] His actions are the same as those ascribed to him under the figure of the "little horn" in chapter seven; "He shall speak great words against the most High.[698] Antiochus, as his type, was to portray some of these characteristics, for "He magnified himself even to the Prince of the host;[699] "He shall also stand up against the Prince of princes".[700]

But his career shall be short—only till the "indignation be accomplished"—till the brief time of three and one-half years [701] during which God shall use him to judge wicked men shall expire.

Neither shall he regard the God of his fathers, nor the desire of women, nor regard any god: for he shall magnify himself above all. (Daniel 11:37)

An interesting touch is added here. If he is to be an anti-Christ, he will be a Jew, for the word "anti" in Greek means "instead of" rather than "opposed to." If he is to pose for a while as the
Jewish Christ (Messiah) it would appear necessary for him to be a Jew. The “God of his fathers” is, then, the Jehovah God of Israel. Some modern translations render the passage “gods of his fathers” but the oft-recurring Scriptural reference to the "God of your fathers" or the "God of their fathers" or "Lord God" etc. makes it close to a certainty that the common expression for the Jewish God, Jehovah, is meant here. Besides, no true Jew will ever accept a known pagan as his Christ. At first, he will appear to be a pious Jew—afterward his true character will come to light.

"Nor desire of women" has been variously interpreted to mean anything from certain womanly idols to sexual interest. The exact meaning is still unknown. Certain expositors think this may be a ref­erence to Jesus Christ. Pious Jewish women, it is said, in times be­fore the birth of Jesus, hoped to give birth to the promised seed. Since in the next verse the wicked king is represented as honoring another, this is evidence that it is a reference to the Antichrist.[702]   Jerome observes that in his day some thought the phrase meant that Antichrist would make a show of chastity, that he had no lust for women.[703] Yet Jerome's own translation of the passage indicates that he felt it should read "he shall be engrossed in lust for women"—i.e., Antiochus would be so engrossed. Certain Lutheran interpreters have said it refers to the prohibition of marriage among the Roman Catholic clergy! Others have thought it a reference to ancient worship of Astarte, whose worship by females was accompanied by lasciviousness and prostitution. By this interpretation Antiochus would disregard Astarte worship. One has even suggested that it is a prediction of the Roman Catholic worship of Mary.

But in his estate shall he honor the God of forces: and a god whom his fathers knew not shall he honor with gold, and silver, and with precious stones, and pleasant things. Thus shall he do in the most strong holds with a strange god, whom he shall acknowledge and increase with glory: and he shall cause them to rule over many, and shall divide the land for gain. (Daniel 11:38, 39)

A better rendering of "but in his estate he shall honor the God of forces" might be; "But in its place he shall honor the god of force." Keil suggests an interpretation that seems adequate, viz., having re­jected  the worship of any god at all, Antichrist shall make the winning of wars his god—"Might makes right."

Not very long ago the people of Germany got a new ruler, known about the world as Adolph Hitler. He rejected the Christian God of the official churches of the land. Openly he claimed to honor the state of Germany itself as his god, suggesting that he himself, as its head, was a sort of god. He resurrected, for propaganda purposes, the pre-Christian deities of the German tribes. But secretly he practiced astrology and consulted fortune-tellers and other practitioners of the occult arts. This is the kind of man the willful king of this chapter will be. While proclaiming himself as a god, and honoring "forces" (military power, perhaps) above everything else, he will be inwardly a spiritual quack, practicing the most foolish things. This has not been at all unusual in the history of the world. And, when we see what might men may now pack in a military punch loaded with hydrogen and atomic bombs, it will be no wonder if he should lead men to fall down and worship that very force as god. Mars, the god of war, has always been a popular deity!

The climax of his career in the momentous events leading to his end at the very appearing of the Lord Jesus Christ to judge and rule the nations, and to deliver his ancient people Israel, is described in the next five verses. It is “at the time of the end”.[704] Paul tells us “that wicked…the Lord shall consume with the spirit of his mouth, and shall destroy with the brightness of his coming”.[705] Isaiah 11:4 describes the same events as does also Revelation 19:11 ff. The twelfth and fourteenth chapters of Zech­ariah give the locale and time of these events. Israel returned to their land in unbelief shall be attacked by this man's forces and, hopelessly outnumbered and overpowered, shall be delivered by the appearing of the very Son of God, their Messiah, Himself. This will be followed by the millennium. The six verses before us portray the growing complex of affairs in the career of the willful king, the man of sin, leading up to that consummation.

And at the time of the end shall the king of the south push at him: and the king of the north shall come against him like a whirlwind, with chariots, and with horsemen, and with many ships; and he shall enter into the countries, and shall overflow and pass over. (Daniel 11:40)

The willful king will be successful at war. Having appeared on the scene of world affairs as a little horn, he shall begin his con­quests by rudely toppling the crowns from off the heads of three neigh­boring kings.[706] Toward the end he shall grow in power rapidly till all the "horns" with "one mind” shall give their power and strength unto the beast”.[707] But others will remain opposed him. Among them appear to be the king of the south (Egypt) and the king of north (Syria). Incidentally the willful king of these verses cannot be Antiochus Epiphanes for he was a king of the north. Despite the fierceness of their attack with all kinds of advanced weapons and forces [708] he shall win.

He shall enter also into the glorious land, and many countries [countries is not in the Hebrew] shall be overthrown: but these shall escape out of his hand, even Edom and Moab, and the chief of the children of Ammon. (Daniel 11:41)

Although much of this must await the fulfillments for exposi­tion, one thing is clear, this king will invade the Holy Land [709] but without complete success. Many people, presumably of that "glorious land" shall be overthrown, but not all. "It is interesting to observe how these three districts, of which at this time he does not take possession, are specified in Isa. xi. as falling into the hands of restored Israel;—'they shall lay their hand upon Edom and Moab; and the children of Ammon shall obey them".[710]

He shall stretch forth his hand also upon the countries: and the land of Egypt shall not-escape. But he shall have power over the treasures of gold and of silver, and over all the precious things of Egypt: and the Libyans and the Ethio­pians shall be at his steps. But tidings out of the east and out of the north shall trouble him: therefore he shall go forth with great fury to destroy, and utterly to take away many. (Daniel 11:42-44)

Thirty to thirty-five years ago, when World War II was a-making, this was a very popular section of the Bible for sermons on prophecy, especially these three verses. The Russians were beginning to look big on the international horizon; Hitler was just becoming well-known. The British were still the leading European power. But the really startling customer was Benito Mussolini, Premier of Italy. He had galvanized his own Italy into something of a first-class country again, had built up what looked like a pretty fair army, had talked boastfully and loudly of a revival of the traditions of the Caesars in Italy, and had boldly set out to restore the Roman Empire of old. Was he the “little horn”?

If so, then we might look for him soon to pluck up three other kingdoms and begin his march to power.

With the passage of the years in those fateful thirties the correspondence of certain events of international history with these verses became so startlingly close that not a few declared that the final lineup of nations for Armageddon was taking place before our very eyes. The willful king of verse 36 who exalted himself above every god (which Mussolini really did), and boasted and bragged of his own greatness,[711] and who worshipped Mars, the god of war [712] was convincingly declared by many to be Mussolini. The king of the south,[713] on what seemed to be pretty good grounds, was identified with the British Empire.[714] The king of the north was thought to, be an alliance of the two northern countries, Germany and Russia.[715] When the non-aggression agreement between Hitler and Stalin was effected in 1939 this interpretation was in its heyday. In the mid-thirties Mussolini took over large sections of Africa, in­cluding Libya and Ethiopia. Didn't Daniel write [716] that the "the Libyans and the Ethiopians shall be at his steps"? The accumulation of evidence was simply astounding.

At this time, the winter of 1935-1936, the writer as a college freshman at Ashland College in Ohio heard a well-known prophetic preacher at the college church. With breathless expectancy we heard him preach on "Mussolini's Legions on the March—to Ethiopia or Armageddon?". If I had been preaching at the time and had known my Bible as well as this man of God I think maybe I would have preached on that topic too.

But, alas, in less than ten years poor Mussolini was strung by his heels, naked and dead, from the front shed of a gasoline station: Hitler and Stalin had broken their pact and had fought one another in a deadly war; the British Empire had well-nigh passed away, and the prophetic preachers had simply changed the subject. Prophecy preaching of this type simply died out. But, sad to say, along with it much of the old-time emphasis on and interest in the coming of our Lord and the light which the Bible sheds on related things have partly died out too. Having learned only too well that "prophecy was not given in order that we should prophesy" we ought to revive our interest in the things that lead us to watch more earnestly and hopefully for the coming again of the Son of Man.

I shall not repeat the mistakes of yesterday and attempt definitely to identify the nations on the scene today who might fulfill the require­ments of these verses: the king of the north, the king of the south, "tidings out of the east" etc. I cannot, however, restrain my curiosity and interest.

These things of the history of the past generation are too vivid, too personal, and too important to report to the reader in anything but a personal manner. Let us return to more stately manners.

There is quite a list here of countries among the ancient neigh­bors of the Jews. Daniel 11:41—"but these shall escape out of his hand, even Edom, and Moab, and the chief of the children of Ammon." Daniel 11:42—"The Libyans and the Ethiopians shall be at his steps." In addi­tion Palestine itself is mentioned in the context as "the glorious land".[717] Other lands of the "east and…the north" appear.[718] These become very difficult of interpretation for those who do not expect Israel ever to return to their land, and who expect no literal reign of Christ and his saints over the earth in a future millennium. Yet some of these Bible-honoring interpreters feel that the Antichrist is a real person of the last days. They find it hard to make sense of a passage with a real Antichrist but only figurative enemies for him.

I think this method of interpretation lacks Biblical authority. Incidentally, prophecies in Isaiah, Jeremiah and Ezekiel predict restoration for several of these lands "in the latter days."

And he shall plant the tabernacles of his palace between the seas in the glorious holy mountain; yet he shall come to his end, and none shall help him. (Daniel 11:45)

Having moved to Palestine with his troops to put an end to the hated Jewish people, the Antichrist will plant the "tabernacles of his palace," that is, his royal pavilions, between the seas, likely the Dead Sea and the Mediterranean Sea in the neighborhood of the holy mount on which sits the ancient Holy City of Jerusalem. There he will feel the blast of God which will spell his end. For, “The Lord also shall roar out of Zion, and utter, his voice from Jerusalem; and the heavens and the earth shall shake: but the Lord will be the hope of his people, and the strength of the children of Israel".[719]

This moment of the eternal ruin of Satan's man of sin is of great interest to the writers of the Bible. The Holy Spirit of prophecy has imparted a good deal about it. The enterprising student will find some of these in the twelfth and fourteenth chapters of Zechariah, the third chapter of Joel, Revelation 14:17-20 and chapter 19. Some [720] apply Ezekiel 38 and 39. These passages, however, are of doubtful application.

In his final end, being destroyed by the direct action of god Almighty, without ordinary human hands, Antiochus’ death of grief in Babylon was a type.

C.      Prophecy Concerning the Great Tribulation of Israel (12:1)

And at that time shall Michael stand up, the great prince which standeth for the children of thy people: and there shall be a time of trouble, such as never was since there was a nation even to that same time: and at that time thy people shall be delivered, every one that shall be found written in the book. (Daniel 12:1)

Michael is the great angelic defender of Israel, according to these words. When we are told in Revelation 12:7 that there is celestial warfare in which Michael and his angels fight we are not to dismiss this as mere poetic language. Angels appear often in Biblical story as de­fenders of Israel. A great angelic being appeared to Joshua as "cap­tain of the Lord's host" to give assurance to that embattled leader just before the conquest of Jericho.[721] When the fright­ened servant of Elisha saw the host of Syria arrayed about Dothan, he cried to his master, "Alas, my master! how shall we do?" The answer came, "Fear not: for they that be with us are more than they that be with them. And Elisha prayed, and said, Lord, I pray thee, open his eyes, that he may see. And the Lord opened the eyes of the young man; and he saw: and, behold, the mountain was full of horses and chariots of fire round about Elisha."[722] Then Elisha prayed the Lord to smite the enemy people with blindness, and God did so, pre­sumably using the angelic host of defenders to do so. It was "the angel of the Lord" that destroyed 180,000 Assyrians in a single night when they were encamped against Jerusalem.[723] And, when the fearful disciples of our Savior were attempting puny efforts at his defense he said, “Thinkest thou that I cannot now pray to my Father, and he shall presently give me more than twelve legions of angels?”[724]

The "time of trouble, such as never was since there was a na­tion even to that same time" is the short period of time near the end of this age commonly known as The Great Tribulation. But, whatever may be said about the period elsewhere, the interest of Daniel in it is that his people, Israel, shall suffer during it. Jeremiah also speaks at length of this period. He speaks of it as a day when men shall be in pain like that of women in childbirth.[725] Jeremiah makes clear the purpose of it as a kind of final chastening of Israel by the Lord before he permanently and finally resumes his special rela­tionship with them. It would take us far afield to develop this theme, but the student may pursue the subject for himself in Jeremiah 30 and 31. These passages make it clear that the restoration to follow tribu­lation is permanent and final.

Several passages speak of this time as a period of "indignation" during which all men living on the earth shall suffer greatly. Both Isaiah 25:20 and Daniel 11:36 speak it in this way. Many passages speak of the suffering of men in general. Wars, pestilences, great fires, plagues of various sorts, until it is said that “they gnawed their tongues for pain”[726] shall prevail.

Israel, however, will emerge triumphant and glorious out of it. “It is even the time of Jacob’s trouble; but he shall be saved out of it”.[727]

A question which many today find important is: Will there be Christian believers on earth during those days, or will the Lord remove them by “rapture” beforehand? It is a question which all might wish had been given a more direct answer by the Lord, for there is the ut­most diversity of opinion about it. This diversity did not, so far as we can determine, prevail in the early Christian centuries. The Church's teachers recognized in the Roman emperor the lineaments of Antichrist and the sufferings of the great persecutions as the tribulation. Who can doubt that there is a sense in which this was true? It was a kind of incipient fulfillment of the prophecies, as is not uncommon in many areas of Bible truth. Those today who insist that there will be a "rapture" of the church before the Tribulation cite passages such as Revelation 3:10 and John 5:24—"shall not come into judgment" ASV, and similar passages. Those who expect the church to remain on earth till the very end, anticipating no "rapture" before the Tribulation point out that II Thess. 2:1 ff. appears to place the revelation of the man of sin before the second coming of Christ in any sense, especially in­asmuch as "our gathering together unto him," and the "coming of our Lord Jesus Christ"[728] and "the day of Christ"[729] appear to be used as synonyms for the second coming event. If the revelation of the man of sin is to precede the gathering of the saints together to Christ, then they will be here through the Tribulation. They also point out that the church's commission is to preach until "the consummation of the age"[730] and that our Lord elsewhere specified that the wheat (true believers) and the tares (unbelievers) are to grow together in this world until the harvest at "the consummation of the age".[731] They also point out that Jesus, without any suggestion that the “elect” are to be Jewish, as such, predicted when the judgment of the wicked dead shall take place—“after the thousand years are finished.”

In support of the general premillennial view advocated here is the translation suggested by S. P. Tregelles, of a German author named Gerhard Kerkherdere, and by the Jewish scholars Saadiah Haggaon (tenth century) and Aben Ezra (twelfth century). It reads: "And many from among the sleepers of the dust of the earth shall awake; these shall be unto everlasting life; but those [the rest of the sleepers, those who do not awake at this time] shall be unto shame and everlasting contempt." This trans­lation may be sustained by the Hebrew text and is presented here as being, in this writer's opinion; the correct one.

D.      Prophecy Concerning the Final Reward of the Righteous (12:3)

And they that be wise shall shine as the brightness of the firmament; and they that turn many to righteousness as the stars forever and ever. (Daniel 12:3)

This is one of the most precious promises of the Bible. But, who are these "wise"?[732]   The same word appears in the Hebrew Bible at 11:33 where it is translated "they that understand," and at 11:35 where it is translated "them of understanding." It appears again in chapter 12, verse 10, where it is translated "the wise." In chapter 11 the two references are to the loyal people of Israel who, understanding and believing God’s Word, stood up under the trials and persecutions of Antiochus Epiphanes, whose heroism, as we have noted previously in these studies, is described in the books of Maccabees and is celebrated in Hebrews 11:36 ff. The wise of Daniel 12:3, the verse before us; as well as in verse 10, are saints of the end-time. But the principles involved apply to people of all ages.

Most of us have opportunity to become “spiritually wise”—to be among “them of understanding” in times of trial. Peter admonished that "If, when ye do well, and suffer for it, ye take it patiently, this is acceptable with God. For even hereunto were ye called." He cites the wise example of our Savior in his patient suffering at Cal­vary.[733] Later he adds more, to the effect that the suffering of unjust persecution should be thought normal to the Chris­tian life, and further advocates submissive behavior.[734] The outlook which prompts this kind of behavior, then, is the wisdom Daniel is talking about.

What does it mean to “shine as the brightness of the firma­ment…as the start forever and ever"? Let another answer: "The imagery would come home to one so familiar both with Scriptural and Babylonian parallels as Daniel. That clear unruffled sky, beneath which his life had been spent, had taught his Chaldean predecessors and preceptors the astronomical and astrological lore which made them famous, and inspired a polytheistic creed which had made them infamous. The very firmament or 'heaven' was a deity of the highest rank; his 'brightness' the splendor of the chief gods. The 'stars' and planets were the true exterior manifestations of that divine being, acquiring luster from him and merging it once again in him. But Daniel's Jewish training had taught him how to purge and elevate these conceptions; that 'firmament' was God's creation;[735] its 'brightness' a testimony to his greatness [736] ...the 'stars' were of God's ordinance, their number 'told' by Him, their names 'called' by Him; 'in their courses they fought' against His enemies and 'made obeisance to” his servants.[737] The words of Daniel were afterwards applied by our Lord himself to the ‘righteous’,[738] and the imagery became sanctified to Christian use. ”[739]

Proverbs 11:30 states, "The fruit of righteousness is a tree of life; and he that winneth souls is wise." To see this thought, the wisdom of soul-winning, developed further refer also I Corinthians 9:19 and especially James 5:20.

The subject of rewards for the righteous works of Christians is given extensive treatment in the New Testament. Some of the pas­sages are I Corinthians 3:19-23; II Corinthians 5:8-10; II Tim. 2:5; I Cor. 9:25; Phil. 4:1; I Thess. 2:19; II Tim. 4:8; James 1:12; I Pet. 5:4.

E.       Final Prophecies and Instructions (12:4-13)

1.      The disposition of the book

But thou, 0 Daniel, shut up the words, and seal the book, even to the time of the end: many shall run to and fro, and knowledge shall be increased. (Daniel 12:4)

These words have to do with the preservation and the understanding of the prophecies of Daniel.

The 0ld Testament has quite a lot to say about the sealing of books—all relating to their authentication as being genuinely written by the parties whose names and signatures they bear and to their preservation until the proper parties might open and read them. As far as we can see, nothing about obscuration of the meaning (as some assert) until any certain time is involved in sealing. The fact that we still have Daniel's book, in the original languages and in the many translations, is the fulfillment of the purpose of sealing.

The latter half of the verse has no reverence at all to increased facility of travel in modern times (steamships, railroads, automobiles, airplanes, etc.). Neither does it refer to the advances in scientific knowledge. Leopold's rendering gives the right meaning: "Many shall diligently peruse it, and knowledge shall be increased." The running to and fro is of the eyes of the diligent readers on the page of the book of prophecy as down through the years God's people have read this book, and other books of Scripture. As the centuries roll on our under­standing of all the Bible does grow. We stand on the shoulders of students who have gone before us. When finally all of these predictions, granting that we have spiritual eyes to see, have been brought to pass before us and faith has changed to sight, then we shall understand them perfectly.

In the meantime it behooves all of us, of us, of every reverent faithful eschatological persuasion, to be more than a little humble in the expression of our opinions. Above all we should not make interpre­tation of some of the obscure particulars of prophecy a test of faith and fellowship. "They that be wise…shall understand"—and be humble. The "wise in their own conceits" will keep on casting their detractors out of the synagogue of their own teachings.

2.      Lord: How long?

Then I Daniel looked, and, behold, there stood other two, the one on this side of the bank of the river, and the other on that side of the bank of the river. And one said to the man clothed in linen, which was upon the waters of the river, How long shall it be to the end of these wonders? And I heard the man clothed in linen, which was upon the waters of the river, when he held up his right hand and his left hand unto heaven, and sware by him that liveth forever that it shall be for a time, times, and a half; and when he shall have accomplished to scatter the power of the holy people, all these things shall be finished. (Daniel 12:5-7)

The Hebraic manner of oath-taking seen here is most impressive. “…he held up his right hand and his left hand unto heaven, and sware by his that liveth forever that it should be."[740] With regard to this oath "Abram said to the king of Sodom, I have lifted up mine hand unto the Lord, the most high God".[741] In Deuteronomy 32:40 God himself is represented as lifting up His hand to heaven in making an oath. So the lifting of the right hand along with making an affirmation were features of oath-taking. The raising of both hands, as here, presumably was to render the statement even more affirmative.

One day after the risen Christ had been speaking of his kingdom with his apostles intermittently for a period of nearly forty days [742] and they were all together for the very last time "they asked him, saying, Lord wilt thou at this time restore again the kingdom to Israel." His answer was simply that it was not for them to know the "times or the seasons."[743] There was not a word of correction about their persistent expectation of a future special kingdom for the Jews. There was, however, expectation concerning what to d in the meantime.

Daniel was in a position similar to that of the Apostles. The days of special revelation were at an end. Even the angels present with Daniel did not know just when the momentous events predicted would take place. One of them asked the man clothed with linen (the Son of God) who was “above the waters of the river",[744] "How long shall it be to the end of these wonders?" The angel addressed the right party, for only an omnipotent God knows the future.

The answer in effect was first to give a solemn oath that what revelation had already been imparted in this and previous revelations was absolutely true, and then to say no more, merely calling upon the interested parties to study further the “time, times, and an half” already mentioned several times in previous prophecies. Bothe the oath and the instruction are useful for us today.  If life is to go on with joy and with courage we have to know that things are coming out right, at the end, according to God's oath. God is the "end of the lime" in our human search for certainty. "For God…because he could swear by no greater, he sware by himself."[745]

The word and promise which God has given,
   Are more enduring than mighty mountains,
When earth is shaken and rent the heaven
   This one foundation remains!
God's word and promise shall fail us never,
   But will forever, hold and prevail, When stars are fallen,
And mountains broken,
   What God hath spoken shall not fail.

The direction to study what has already been written, seeking no further special revelations but to study and wait applies directly to men today. In our day of a "silent heaven," when "there is no more any prophet: neither is there among us any that knoweth how long" [746]   we must be satisfied that "whatsoever things were written aforetime were written for our learning, that we through patience and comfort of the scriptures might have hope".[747]

3.      What shall the end be like?

And I heard, but I understood not: then said I, O my Lord, what shall be the end of these things? And he said, Go thy way for the words are closed up and sealed till the time of the end, Many shall be purified, and made white, and tried; but the wicked shall do wickedly: and none of the wicked shall under­stand. And -from the time that the daily sacrifice shall be taken away, and the abomination that maketh desolate set up, there shall be a thousand two hundred and ninety days. Blessed is he that waiteth, and cometh to the thousand three hundred and five and thirty days. (Daniel 12:8-14)

Though these words have a certain cryptic flavor, they should not be regarded as essentially impossible to interpret. The times or “things” in which Daniel, following the lead of the angel,[748] showed his interest, was the period of great tribulation lasting three times (years) and a half. The book of Revelation informs us that this period is to be concluded with the coming of Christ a second tine, to save his people Israel, to raise the righteous dead, and to set up the kingdom promised.[749] With all the problems some raise against such a program, it still is the succession of future events announced by the Scriptures. If this is true then the 1260 days will finish their course at the very end of the Great Tribulation, beginning at the mid-point of the seventieth week.[750] The 1290 days would therefore extend 30 days into the Millennium for there is no hint in Scripture of any lapse of time be­tween the close of the seventieth week and the inauguration of Christ's millennial reign. I think we may tentatively suppose it to be a period, shall we say, of "mopping up" exercises. As to the 1335 days, the best suggestion I know of is that passed along by Harry Ironside: "A longer period yet is given in verse twelve: 'Blessed is he that waiteth, and cometh to the thousand three hundred five and thirty days.' Some have suggested that this would carry on the time to the celebration of the first millennial feast of tabernacles, as in the 14th chapter of Zechariah. At any rate it clearly points us on to the full establishment of the kingdom in power and glory.”[751]

[1] vid. Deut. 26:5, Gen. 26:5; 31:47
[2] Mt. 24:15
[3] vid. Journal of Biblical Literature, Vol. LXXV, Part IV, p. 277
[4] vid. II Kings 24:8-16; cf. Ezek. 1:1 ff
[5] vid. Jer. 52; II Kings 25
[6] vid. Ezra 1
[7] Jer. 25:11, 12
[8] I Sam. 14:6
[9] 4:17
[10] Jer. 25:9
[11] Jer. 52:16-23
[12] II Ki. 20:12-17
[13] II Ki. 20:18
[14] Dan. 1:8
[15] Ezra 2:62, cf. Neh. 7:64
[16] Mt. 15:11
[17] vid. Exodus 34:15
[18] vid. Lev. 3:17, 6:26; 17:10-14; 19:26
[19] Romans 3:25, 5:9
[20] Lev. 10:1 ff
[21] Mt. 12:3-5 cf. I Sam. 21:6, Num. 28:8, 9
[22] J. A. Seiss
[23] II Sam. 2:17
[24] II Sam. 12:16
[25] Prov. 12:10
[26] vid. above on v. 8 and also Ezek. 4
[27] Dan. 9:23; 10:19
[28] Ezek. 14:14, 20
[29] Deut. 6:4-9
[30] cf. M`t. 10:26-28
[31] I Sam. 2:12-30, esp. v.29
[32] I Peter 3:1-5; I Tim. 2:9
[33] vid. Acts 4:19, 20
[34] Daniel 2:5
[35] Daniel Chapter 3
[36] Daniel Chapter 6
[37] (James Russell Lowell: The Present Crisis)

[38] Dan. 10:19
[39] Phil. 1:21
[40] Num. 12:3
[41] Ezek. 28:3
[42] Prov. 2:23
[43] Prov. 3:5, 6
[44] Prov. 22:29, cf. Dan. 8:27
[45] Eph. 1:11
[46] i.e., the full course of all history
[47] Eph. 1:10
[48] vid. Ec. 1:1-11
[49] contra Deut. 7:6-8
[50] Num. 12:6
[51] Gen. 41
[52] Gen. 20:5-7
[53] II Chron. 35:20-22 cf. II Ki. 23:29, 30
[54] cf. Dan. 1:5
[55] cf. Dan. 1:5
[56] Ewald, Herzfeld, Lenormant, Farrar
[57] several critical writers
[58] Hengstenberg
[59] A minor problem of interpretation, unrelated to the message of Daniel occurs in this position in connection with the sentence: “Then spake the Chaldeans to the king in Syriac" (v. 4). This does not mean that the language in which the Chaldeans spoke was Syriac. Rather, as is now generally recognized by scholars, "In Syriac” (Heb. In Aramaic) should be regarded as an ancient editorial rubric indicating that all that follows in Daniel, down to the end of chapter seven is in that language. This was the language of Palestine in later Jewish times.

[60] See E.J. Young, The Prophecy of Daniel, pp. 271-273 for full discussion.
[61] Dan. 2:47
[62] Voices from Babylon, pp. 47-49
[63] Dan. 2:14, 15
[64] Dan. 2:17
[65] Dan. 2:18
[66] Mt. 26:39, 42, 44; John 17:5
[67] Ps. 21:2; 38:9
[68] as also by his great contemporary, the prophet Ezekiel, vid. Ez. 14:14, 20
[69] Dan. 2:19
[70] cf. Dan. 7:1
[71] Dan. 2:20-23
[72] Dan. 2:24
[73] cf. Dan. 2:14
[74] Dan. 2:25
[75] Dan. 2:25
[76] I Cor. 2:14
[77] Mal. 3:16-18; I Cor. 2:15
[78] Dan. 2:27, 28
[79] Dan. 2:28
[80] Dan. 2:29
[81] in contrast to "the former days"
[82] See Isaiah 2:2, Micah 4:1, and Genesis 49:1 especially as the period between them in which we now live.
[83] An examination, in context, of the following passages will satisfy the inquiring student on this point—Acts 2:17 cf. Joel 2:28; I John 2:18; Hebrews 1:1, 2.
[84] Dan. 2:31
[85] vid. Isa. 14:4
[86] Dan. 2:32
[87] Dan. 5:31 c.f. 5:8
[88] vid. 6:8
[89] Anti-supernatural Biblical criticism for nearly two centuries now has made interpretation of the four successive kingdoms a point of special attack. If, as the book of Daniel clearly indicates, and as history shows, believers have always interpreted, Babylon, Medo-Persia, Greece, and Rome, then Daniel contains true predictive prophecy. But these critics place the date of authorship in the period just before 160 B.C. So they twist this book to teach mistakenly, of course, that there were Babylon, Media, Persia, and Greece. In this way genuine prediction of the future is eliminated from the prophecy, making out the author to be a blunderer in matters of history. The reverent reader of Daniel and of the Old Testament as a whole will not be led into
any of these wild conclusions.
[90] Dan. 2:20, 21
[91] No extensive kingdom, at least of that name, existed.
[92] Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
[93] Lu. 21:24
[94] vid. "the days of these kings" of v.44
[95] cf. Rev. 12:3; 13:1; 17:3, 7, 12 ff
[96] See the author’s book, Daniel and the Latter Days, Part II, Chapter 2, Chicago: Moody Press, 1964 for fuller discussion and proof.
[97] Dan. 6:14, 15
[98] Gen. 2:7
[99] Isa. 45:9, 64:8 cf. Rom. 9:21
[100] Ps. 23, John 10, I Peter 5:1ff
[101] Isa. 8:14, 15
[102] I Cor. 1:23
[103] I Pe. 2:8
[104] Luke 19:41-44
[105] Rom. 11:11 ff
[106] Rom. 11:25-32
[107] I Pe. 2:4-7
[108] cf. also Deut. 32:4, 15, 18, 30, 31, 37
[109] Matt. 21:43
[110] Matt. 21:44
[111] Matt. 25, Rev. 19:11 ff
[112] Rom. 13:1 ff
[113] Matt. 22:21
[114] Isa. 11:4; Compare also Zech. 14:16-19
[115] Ps. 2:9
[116] Rev. 19:15
[117] Isa. 60:12
[118] Matt. 13:30, 39, 40
[119] See also II Tim. 3:1-5 and I Tim. 4:1-2
[120] Rom. 14:17
[121] Col. 1:13
[122] Rev. 11:15
[123] Dan. 2:46-49
[124] Dan. 2:46
[125] Dan. 2:30
[126] vid. Acts 14:8-18
[127] vid. Chapter 4
[128] Dan. 2:47
[129] Dan. 2:47
[130] See Ez. 14:14, 14:20, 28:3
[131] Eph. 1:11
[132] Rom. 8:28
[133] I Tim. 2:1-3
[134] Isa. 40:15, 17

[135] Prov. 29:25
[136] Heb. 11:34
[137] Dan. 3:8
[138] Heb. Grace of the Lord
[139] Heb. Who is like God?
[140] Heb. Help of the Lord
[141] vid. 8:27
[142] Dan. 2:48
[143] cf. Jer. 10:3ff
[144] Ex. 39:38
[145] Ex. 37:25, 26
[146] vid. v. 14 "do not ye serve my gods, nor worship the golden image which I have set up," also vv. 12, 18
[147] Dan. 3:12
[148] Acts 17
[149] Ex. 32
[150] 1Ki. 12:25-33
[151] Matt. 16:21-23
[152] Prov. 29:25
[153] Matt. 10:16-39
[154] Matt. 10:17
[155] Matt. 10:28
[156] "The king sent to gather together the princes, the governors, and the captains the judges, the treasurers, the counselors, the sheriffs, and all the rulers of the provinces" (3:2). The passing of time has lent confusion to the precise meaning of the words behind the translation of this list of officers. Wedo not know exactly how Nebuchadnezzar organized his empire for administration and we do not know the exact meaning of the words. They are, in fact, derived from three different known ancient languages: Aramaic, Persian, and Babylonian. There are two words in the list of unknown derivation. Words of Persian origin preponderate. Those who insist on a second century date for the writing of the book say this is evidence that the book was written in that century when the Persian Empire was still well remembered.
[157] vid. Ex. 17:2, 7; Deut. 6:16
[158] Gen. 3:1 ff., cf. I Tim. 2:14), or of David's temptation by sight of a particularly alluring woman (II Sam. 11:1-4)
[159] Jas. 1:13, 14
[160] Ps. 7:9, cf. Job 7:18; Ps. 11:4, 5; 139:23
[161] Gen. 50:20
[162] Acts 2:23
[163] Mt. 4:1-10; 16:14-23
[164] "The sound of the cornet, flute, harp, sackbut, psaltery, dulcimer, and all kinds of music" (3:5). The cornet and flute were wind instruments, but horn and pipe are better renderings. Horn in Aramaic and Hebrew, as in our language, is primarily either a cow-, sheep-, or goat-horn or an instrument made from one. Pre­sumably, an instrument shaped like a animal's horn even though made of other material, then as now, might be called a horn. The pipe or flute is from a word meaning whist­ler or hisser. Harp should be lyre or zither. The sackbut (Aram. sabkah) was a tri­angular instrument of three or four strings. The psaltery (Aram. pesanterin) is another stringed instrument of some kind. Dulcimer is entirely misleading as a translation, for the Aramaic word symphonyah means tube, vein (artery) or pipe. This name in later Greek-Latin form, symphonia, came to designate a bagpipe. Highest authorities assert that though it is a Greek-sounding word, it is, nevertheless, indigenous Aramaic, adapted in sound later to a thoroughly Greek word symphonē (symphony), syn (with) plus phonē (sound, voice).

[165] Ex. 32:4
[166] Ex. 32:5
[167] vid. I Ki. 12:25-33
[168] Jn. 14:8
[169] Jn. 1:14
[170] Col. 3:4
[171] I Jn. 5:21
[172] i.e., to worship an idol and to justify it somehow as a means to some good end
[173] R. Payne Smith
[174] (vid. II Ki. 5:15-19).
[175] Jn. 3:1
[176] Jn. 19:38
[177] Mt. 5:17
[178] (vid. v. 47),
[179] (II Ki. 19).
[180] Acts 16:37
[181] Dan. 3:16
[182] Dan. 3:17
[183] Dan. 3:15
[184] Heb. 13:6
[185] "One seven" is merely literal rendition of Aramaic idiom. The word "one" should be omitted in translation.
[186] Dan. 1:20
[187] R. Payne Smith
[188] Naphtha is originally the Assyrian or Babylonian word for petroleum.
[189] e.g., the crucifixion of Christ
[190] Brown, Driver and Briggs Lexicon
[191] cf. Dan. 5:10
[192] Dan. 5:19
[193] i.e., righteous
[194] R. Payne Smith
[195] Mt. 16:16
[196] Jn. 20:28
[197] Dan. 3:25
[198] Dan. 3:27
[199] Dan. 3:24, 25, 28
[200] Acts 25:11
[201] Dan. 3:29
[202] Phil. 1:20
[203] Dan. 3:30
[204] Rev. 2:10
[205] Rom. 2:1
[206] Dan. 4:17
[207] Phil 2:11, Rom. 10:9
[208] James 4:10
[209] cf. Dan. 4:8, 9
[210] I Cor. 8:5, 6
[211] I Cor. 8: 4
[212] e.g., Isa. 41:29
[213] Acts 4:20
[214] Rom. 11:33
[215] Ps. 8:9
[216] Ps. 107:8
[217] cf. Ps. 92:l4, "they shall be . . . green”
[218] cf. Dan. 4:11
[219] Dan 4:5
[220] Pr. 16:32
[221] Dan. 4:6
[222] Dan. 4:7
[223] Cf. Chapter 2
[224] Cf. Chapter 3
[225] vid. I Kings 22:15-18
[226] Cf. Gen. 2, 3
[227] Jud.9:8ff
[228] Ps. 1:3
[229] Jer. 1:11, 12
[230] Ez. 15:1ff; 31:3-18
[231] I Ki. 5:3, 9
[232] Pr. 15:5, cf. Zech. 4:11
[233] vid. Dan. 10
[234] Ps. 24:1
[235] Is. 40:15
[236] Rom. 13:1
[237] Acts 17:24, 26
[238] See Rom. 13; Gen. 9:1-6; II Tim. 2:1-3
[239] Acts 8:18-24
[240] Ps. 25:14
[241] I Sam. 3:11-18
[242] John Calvin
[243] Lu. 15:16
[244] Pr. 29:23
[245] vid. Ez. 30:20-31:18
[246] Job 42:12
[247] cf. Dan. 2:44; 7:14, 27
[248] vid., e.g. Joel 1:3, 14; 2:17, 18
[249] cf. Joel 2:13
[250] cf. Joel 2:12-14
[251] e.g., Heb. 10:26 ff.
[252] Against Apion. I, 19
[253] Josephus, Against Apion. I. 19
[254] The Legend of Megasthenes
[255] See Boutflower, In and Around the Book of Daniel
[256] Dan. 4:34).
[257] Dan. 4:1-28
[258] vid. especially 4:4, 10, 11
[259] Dan. 4:29, 30
[260] Dan. 4:31-33
[261] cf. the case of the prodigal who returned only when he "came to him­self," Lu. 15:17
[262] Dan. 4:34-36
[263] Rom. 12:1, 2
[264] cf. Ez. 29:17-30:26
[265] II Ki. 25:27, Amel-Marduk
[266] called Nergal-sharezer in Jer. 39:3, 13
[267] Dan. 5:1
[268] Jer. 50:3, 8, 49
[269] Jer. 51:11, 28
[270] Jer. 51:53, 58
[271] Jer. 50:24
[272] Jer. 51:36 "I will dry up her sea and make her springs dry."
[273] i.e., the ferries that joined the streets in lieu of bridges from one side of the Euphrates to the other, Jer. 51:32
[274] Jer. 51:39, 57
[275] cf. Dan. 4:12, Jer. 50:26
[276] Italics mine, Herodotus, Histories. I, 191
[277] Dan. 5:5
[278] II Cor. 4:18
[279] Acts 17:31
[280] Note - Daniel 5:5, 24 the king saw the part of the hand that wrote … then was the part of the hand sent from him. The word for hand in Aramaic and Hebrew is not as specific as ours, for it sometimes evidently was used to refer to the entire forearm. Therefore qualifyingwords are used to make it clear that it was only the extremity of the arm that appeared. The word in verse 5 rendered "part" is the usual word for palm of the hand. The same is the case in verse 24. This joined with the mention of the "fingers of a man's hand" makes it clear that it was the part ofthe arm below the wrist that appeared.
[281] Note - In excavating the palace, Koldeway, who reports his findings in Das wieder erstehende Babylon, found in the southern area of it a large hall 17 meters wide by 52 long which he identified as the throne room, or chief audience chamber. In the center of one of the long sides, opposite the entrance, there was a niche in which the throne must have been placed. The walls, he reports, were covered with white plaster. The combination of bright lamps and white plaster against the opposite wall of the long room made the writing fingers and their work most prominent.
[282] "which see not, nor hear, nor know" Dan. 5:23
[283] Gen. 41:42
[284] cf. I Chron. 3:17, Luke 3:27, 31
[285] Heb. 4:16
[286] II Ki. 5:15, 16
[287] Dan. 5:22
[288] Rom. 1:21, 24
[289] Dan. 5:23
[290] Isa. 14:4
[291] Isa. 14:13-15
[292] Dan. 5:23
[293] vid., Rom. 2:21-25 and context
[294] Note on sacrilege. Sacrilege may be defined as the willful and unnecessary use of holy things for common or sinful purposes. When David in order to preserve the life of his own men used show-bread from off the holy table for food it was not regarded as sacri­lege (I Sam. 21:1-6 cf. Matt. 12:1-5).There are no hallowed "things" today, aside from Christian believers themselves and the church itself. It is in misuse of our hallowed bodies and in misuse of the church, i.e., the believers, that sacrilege takes place. When one uses the holy doctrines of our faith merely to satisfy his whims or to ostracize people he does not like, it is sacrilege. When the church and its doctrines are used as a cloak of righteousness to help a man or his party ride into political power, it is sacrilege. "When the Christian pulpit and the honors and sanctities of the holy office are laid hold of for mere personal display, the securement of notoriety, the building up of reputation or the putting forth of doctrines contrary to the Gospel, what is it else than a profanation of what is sacred to the Lord" (Seiss)? It has been pointed out by others that “something of the same is done when the sublime descriptions of the judgment to come, or the momentous history of our Savior’s Passion, or the grand visions of the Apocalypse are taken for musical exhibi­tions, using the holiest of words to intensify artistic performances, add to the emotions, deepen the effect and please the hearers, to secure applause to mere musicians." Certainly there is something wrong about singing the "Messiah" or the "Elijah" as a performance only.

The commonest kind of sacrilege today is the use of the talent, strength, and ability of the Christian man (or any other man for that matter), all given to man to bring God glory, for selfish purposes. When the beauty of the body of mankind is used as a pattern for art that is "art for art's sake" it is the worst kind of sacrilege. It is also a big step toward the animalizing of man. The man of God must always bring the use of his body to the judgment of his Lord, for "ye are Christ's" (I Cor. 3:23) and "your body is a temple of the Holy Ghost" (I Cor. 6:19).
[295] Dan. 5:23
[296] Rom. 1:32
[297] e.g., NW YRK could be New York or (y=j) Now jirk!
[298] Jer. 51:44
[299] II Sam. 6:6, 7
[300] Lev. 10:1, 2
[301] I Cor. 3:17
[302] Euphrates and Tigris
[303] vid. Isa. 40-45, especially 44:24-45:4
[304] Dan. 2:39
[305] cf. chapter seven, esp. v. 1
[306] Rom. 3:11, 6
[307] Rom. 2:7-9
[308] Rev. 1:9
[309] I John 3:12
[310] Mt. 23:37 cf. Mt. 23:33-36
[311] Acts 7:51, 52
[312] Mt, 5:11
[313] Mt. 5:16-18
[314] Acts 7
[315] Acts 18:2
[316] John 21:18, 19
[317] I Pet. 4:12, 13
[318] vid. Mt. 24:1-28; Rev. 13
[319] Note: Recent translations prefer satraps, a Greek word, to "princes" as translation. The word in Aramaic, la-ahaŝ-dar-penî-yá is one of the longest words in the Hebrew Bible. Satrap is no better than prince, for there is no corresponding officer in any Western land today. It has, however, become customary to refer to subordinate rulers in Oriental countries by this name, satrap.
[320] Ahasuerus of the book of Esther
[321] Dan. 1:21, 10:1
[322] Isa. 44:26-45:4
[323] e.g., II Chron. 36:4; II Chron. 36:8, cf. Jeri 22:24
[324] Babylonian priests record the fall of Babylon in detail.
[325] Darius the Mede, Eerdmans, 1958
[326] The interested reader should consult Dr. Whitcomb's book. See also Young, The Prophecy of Daniel; Leupold, Exposition of Daniel; Wilson, Studies in the Book of Daniel.
[327] vid. I Sam. 8
[328] Prov. 10:16
[329] vid. Eph. 4:6 ff, I Cor. 12
[330] Acts 7:9
[331] Mt. 27:18
[332] II Sam. 20:4-10
[333] Prov. 27:4
[334] II Tim. 2:5
[335] cf. Dan. 5:31
[336] Obadiah 3
[337] Dan. 3
[338] Ezek, I4:14
[339] Dan. 10:11
[340] For references to other roof-top prayer rooms see I Samuel 18:33, I Kings 17:19, Acts 1:13, 10:9.
[341] Isa. 30:15
[342] Isa. 59:19
[343] He had advocated pub­lically what came to be the Reformation evangelical doctrines in opposition to Papal doctrines.
[344] Schaff-Herzog, Encycloped­ia of Religious Knowledge
[345] James 1:27
[346] Mt. 6:5 ff
[347] Deut. 17:14-20
[348] II Chron. 6:36-39
[349] James 1: 6, 7
[350] Deut. 12:5-7
[351] I Chron. 11:4-9; 13:1-14; 15:25-29; 21:9-30; II Chron. 3:1-2; 5:1-14; 7:1-3
[352] Jn. 4:20-22
[353] Acts 4:12
[354] Heb. 10:19-22
[355] Luke 18:13, 14
[356] Psa. 55:16, 17
[357] Calvin
[358] cf., Dan. 6:11
[359] Prov. 12:10
[360] Dan. 2:39
[361] vid. Notes on chapter two
[362] Ironside
[363] Dan. 6:16, 17
[364] vid. Isaiah's contrast of the "living God" with the gods of the heathen which are "no gods, but the work of men's hands," (Isa. 37:4, 19)
[365] Dan. 6:26, 27
[366] vid. Dan. 7:16; 8:15-17; 9:20-23; 10:10-14
[367] Ps. 17:14, 15
[368] cf. I Jn. 2:15-19; 5:19
[369] Isa. 6:11, 12
[370] II Tim. 3:16
[371] Lang, The Histories and Prophecies of Daniel,
[372] Dan. 7:2, ASV
[373] cf. Rev. 7:1-3
[374] Jer. 49:36
[375] Jer. 51:1-3. Cf. Jer. 23:19; Zech. 6:1-6; 7:14
[376] vid. I Tim. 2:1, 2
[377] Is. 57.20
[378] Jer. 6:23: 39:42
[379] Jer. 51:42; Rev, 17:15
[380] Lu. 21:25
[381] Rom. 13:1ff
[382] Lu. 4:5-8. See Isa. 34:2; 40:15-17; Joel 3:2 in further study of the spiritual character of the nations.
[383] I Jn. 2:15 ff., 5:19
[384] I Cor. 2:8
[385] II Pet. 3:10
[386] cf. Jer. 49:19-22; Ezek. 17:3, 7, 12
[387] vid. concordance
[388] Compare the two arms, two breasts, etc. of the image of chapter two.
[389] Rev. 4:2-4
[390] Isa. 57:15
[391] Dan. 7:20
[392] Rev. 19:19-21
[393] I Cor. 15:45-47
[394] Matt. 24:30
[395] Acts 1:9
[396] Acts 1:11; I Thess. 4:17; Rev. 1:7
[397] vid. also Dan. 7:22, 27
[398] Mt. 4:17, 23, et. Al.
[399] Rev. 11:15
[400] Auberlen, The Prophecies of Daniel and the revelation of St. John
[401] Col. 1:13
[402] Rev. 22:3-27
[403] cf. 8:16, 9:21
[404] chiefly Sir Robert Anderson and G. H. Lang
[405] Vid. The Coming Prince, Anderson and The Histories and Prophecies of Daniel, Lang.
[406] Dan. 2:40
[407] Dan. 7:7, 8, 24
[408] Rev. 13:1
[409] Rev. 13:1
[410] Rev. 13:5
[411] Rev. 13:2
[412] II Thess. 2:3
[413] II Thess. 2:8
[414] Dan. 7:8
[415] Dan. 7:24
[416] Rev. 13:2b
[417] II Thess. 2:8, 9a
[418] Dan. 7:8
[419] Rev. 17:12, 13, 17
[420] Rev. 13:15; II Thess. 2:4
[421] Rev. 13:16, 17
[422] Karl Barth
[423] II Thess. 2:9, 10
[424] Rev. 13:14
[425] cf. Rev. 13:3
[426] Rev. 13:1, 2 cf. 13:11 ff
[427] Dan. 7:8
[428] Dan. 7:8
[429] Dan. 7:20
[430] Isa. 53:2, 3
[431] Isa. 42:2
[432] Dan. 7:25
[433] See Mt. 24, Luke 21, Mark 13
[434] Jer. 30:7
[435] Dan. 7:25
[436] Rev. 13:5, cf. 11:2
[437] Dan. 9:27; vid. also Dan. 12:7, 11, 12
[438] Rev. 19:11 ad fin
[439] vid. Isa. 2:1-5; Jer. 31:22-40
[440] Rev. 20:1-6
[441] Dan. 7:14, 18 cf. 2:44
[442] Dan. 7:15
[443] Dan. 7:28
[444] Dan. 7:28
[445] Lk. 2:19
[446] These and other arguments are treated in length in the author's volume, Daniel and the Latter Days, a Study in Millennialism, (Chicago: Moody Press, 1954, 1964, especially Appendix II).
[447] Gen. 3:15
[448] Jn. 10:22
[449] cf. Dan. 7:1
[450] vid. Dan. 7:1
[451] Jer. 25:11, 12
[452] cf. Dan. 8:27
[453] vid. Ex. 8:1-3
[454] II Cor. 12:2 ff
[455] Jer. 13:1-7
[456] Rev. 20, 21
[457] The claim of Josephus is probably incorrect.
[458] Quoted by Barnes, Commentary.
[459] Esther 1:3
[460] Free, Archaeology and Bible History
[461] vid. Esther 1:2
[462] Dan. 8:4
[463] as in Dan. 8:4
[464] Is. 45:1
[465] Ez. 34:17, cf. context
[466] "it stirreth up all the dead for thee, even all the chief ones of the earth…all the kings of the nations," Isa. 14:9.
[467] Remember the four wings of the leopard of chapter seven...
[468] So say some historians.
[469] Cf. notes on Dan. 7:6
[470] Ps. 48:2
[471] The word host means army in contemporary English.
[472] Cf. Joseph's dream Gen. 37:9, 10; Is. 24:21; Rev, 12:1 ff.
[473] Note: (Dan. 8:14) "Unto two thousand and three hundred days". RSV renders “evening and mornings”; ASV is the same except that “and” is italicized to indicate that it is not in the Hebrew. The Hebrew is literally “unto evening morning a pair of thousands and three hundred. It is a mystifying expression at best. Probably it has reference to the same as the "continual" (8:11 ASV). If so, then it refers to the custom of offering a burnt offering every morning and another every evening, as commanded in Exodus 29:38-42. It is there called "the continual burnt offering." In Daniel 8:14 it is likely that evening is put before morning on account of the fact that the Hebrew calendar day began with sunset rather than sunrise or midnight. So likely the 2300 evening-mornings are to be counted as just half that many days, or 1150.
[474] Dan. 10:19
[475] cf. Dan. 10:9, 15; Ez. 1:29; Is. 6:5, Ex. 3:6; Acts 9:3, 4; rev. 1:17
[476] Note: (Dan. 8:24) "the mighty and the holy people:—There is a word for "mighty" or "many" or "much" which is used of Israel frequently. That word is used in verse 25. Here the word is a different Hebrew word. So Keil is correct in asserting that “mighty” refers to mighty men in general, especially heathen rulers. The “holy people” are as usual, the Jewish people. This then is a cryptic way of saying this wicked king shall destroy both Gentiles and Jews.
[477] Dan. 2:45
[478] I Maccabees 8:8-16
[479] Heb. chidoth, parables, riddles, etc., cf. II Chron. 9:1 where it is rendered "hard questions".
[480] Rev. 13:2
[481] Dan. 8:19
[482] Dan. 8:23
[483] vid. I Tim. 4:1 ff., II Tim. 3:1 ff
[484] Dan. 8:26
[485] Mt. 24, Mk. 13, Lk. 21
[486] Cf. I Pet. 1:10-12
[487] Read I Maccabees 1:10-15
[488] I Maccabees 1:14
[489] Heb. 11:38, 39
[490] I Maccabees 2:1 ff
[491] Is 66:5
[492] I Peter 1:11
[493] Dan. 8:27
[494] Dan. 9:1, cf. 8:1, 27
[495] Dan. 9:1-3
[496] Acts 17: 2, 3
[497] Acts 17:11
[498] Pr. 2:6, 7
[499] Is. 44:25, 26, 28; 45:1
[500] Lu. 21:28
[501] Jer. 9:3
[502] Jer. 6:10
[503] vid. especially Isaiah 42:24, 25; 43:14, 15; 48;9-11; Jer. 49:17-20
[504] II Chron. 6:36-39
[505] Ez. 36:37
[506] Jer. 50:4, 5, 20
[507] Dan. 9:18, 19
[508] Dan. 9:3 Heb. Adonai Elohim
[509] Dan. 9:4; Heb. Jehovah Elohim. LORD
[510] vid. Ex. 3:13, 14; 6:1-8
[511] Phil. 2:11; Rom. 10:9, 10
[512] Dan. 9:4
[513] Is. 6:1 ff
[514] Dan. 9:4 cf. Ex. 20:5, 6
[515] Dan. 9:7, 16
[516] Dan. 9:9
[517] Mt. 6:5-18; Luke 11:1-13
[518] Dan. 10:11; 9:23
[519] Lang
[520] Dan. 9:3
[521] Lu. 9:51
[522] Is. 50:7
[523] Dan. 10:12, 13, 20
[524] Is. 59:17
[525] Eph. 6:10-20
[526] Dan. 9:3
[527] Lang
[528] vid. many Biblical cases where the sick and their friends call almost raucously for help; Mt. 9:27, 15:22, 17:15, 20:30, 31; Lu. 16:24, 17:13, 18:38, 39.
[529] II Cor. 12:7
[530] Dan. 9:8
[531] Lu. 18:10-14
[532] e.g., Lev. 5:5 ''confess that he hath signed"
[533] Ps 51:4
[534] Ps. 32:5
[535] James 5:16
[536] I Jn. 1:9-2:2
[537] Dan. 9:5
[538] Rom. 3:23
[539] Dan. 9:5
[540] I Ki. 8:47, 48
[541] Jer. 3:24
[542] Jer. 6:13
[543] Jer. 5:7, 8
[544] Jer. 5:30, 31, 9:5
[545] Jer. 9:8
[546] Jer. 17:21, 22 and context
[547] Jer. 7:9
[548] II Chron. 36:16
[549] Dan. 9:6
[550] Dan. 9:5
[551] Dan. 9:6
[552] Dan. 9:7
[553] Dan. 9:10
[554] Dan. 9:11
[555] Dan. 9:12
[556] Dan. 9:13
[557] Phil. 2:6, 7
[558] Dan. 9:16-21
[559] I refer to the angelic oracle of verses 24-27 with which the chapter ends.
[560] Dan. 9:16
[561] Dan. 9:16
[562] Dan. 9:18
[563] Dan. 9:19
[564] Ex. 32:10-14
[565] Dan. 9:19
[566] Chapter 7
[567] Chapter 8, vid. 8:16
[568] Is. 65:24
[569] Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, X. xi, 7
[570] Dan. 9:25
[571] The Hebrew word for week is really a word meaning “a seven”.
[572] Dan. 9:2
[573] Dan. 9:24
[574] cf. Jer. 25:11
[575] Ex. 23:10, 11; Lev. 25:3-9
[576] Dan. 9:24
[577] Daniel and the Latter Days (Chicago: Moody Press, 1954, 1964)
[578] Job 9:7
[579] Job 37:7
[580] Rev. 20:1 ff
[581] vid. Zech. 12:10 cf. Rev. 1:7
[582] Jer. 50:4, 5, 17-20 should be read at this point.
[583] Jer. 50:20
[584] Jer. 31:33-40
[585] Ez. 43:1-7
[586] Is. 4:1-5
[587] Hag. 2:9 ASV
[588] vid. the familiar words of Is. 9:6, 7; cf. Lu. 1:32, 33
[589] Neh. 1:3; 2:3, 13, 17
[590] 1 B. C. to A. D. 1 is one year.
[591] Zech. 9:9 cf. Mt. 21:5-6
[592] Mt. 16:20, et. al.
[593] Jn. 6:15; Lu. 12:13, 14, et. al.
[594] Lu. 19:28-38
[595] Lu. 19:42-44
[596] Lu. 19:40
[597] Anderson, The Coming Prince, ably summarized for the lay reader by McClain, Daniel's Prophecy of the Seventy weeks, Zondervan.
[598] Dan. 7
[599] Overwhelming catastrophe or distress of any kind is frequently designated as a "flood" in Scripture. See for ex­ample Ps. 32:6f.
[600] Dan. 9:24
[601] vid. Matt. 24:15 ff
[602] II Thess. 2
[603] Dan. 7:25
[604] Dan. 12:7, 11, 12
[605] vid. Rev. 11:2, 3; 12:6, 14; 13:5
[606] Dan. 7, 8, 9
[607] Dan. 2:1; 7:1; 8:1; 9:1
[608] Compare treatment of chapter eight
[609] cf. Deut. 18:16
[610] Jn. 14:8
[611] Ezra 3
[612] Ezra 4:4, 5
[613] Dan. 4:8
[614] cf. Daniel1:21 where continuance in office to the first year of Cyrus only is related.
[615] Lu. 2:36, 37
[616] Heb. matter
[617] vid. also Mark 7:18-23, Acts 10:9-18, I Tim. 4:1-3
[618] Mark 2:19, 20
[619] Mt. 6:16-18
[620] Joel 1:14-16; II Chron.  20:3; Ezra 8:21-23, 10:6; Neh. 1:4; Deut. 9:9, 18; I Ki. 19:6-8
[621] Mt. 4:2
[622] Calvin, loc. cit.
[623] vid. Genesis 15:18
[624] Dan. 10:2
[625] Dan. 10:5, 16
[626] Ez. 1:26
[627] Dan. 12:6
[628] Dan. 12:6
[629] EX. 28:42
[630] I Macc. 14:43
[631] Rev . 1:16
[632] Note: "girded with fine gold of Uphaz" (Dan. 10:5). Uphaz evidently was a gold-bearing area. The location is unknown. It is mentioned only here and in Jer. 10:9, whereas here it is said to be a source gold. It has been suggested that perhaps it is the same as Ophir, which is spelled the same in Hebrew except for the last letter. Post Biblical Jewish literature more to say about it. Ophir, though frequently mentioned in the Old Testament is quite unknown as to location. The Fare East, Africa, and Arabia have been advocated.

[633] Acts 9:3-7
[634] vid. Dan. 7:1
[635] Note: my comeliness was turned in me to corruption (Dan. 10:8). The comeliness of Daniel was his natural beauty as a living being with “appropriate strength and grace.” “Corruption” might better be “disfigurement”—a related Hebrew word being used at Isaiah 53:14 of the effect of the pains of crucifixion upon our Lord.
[636] John Calvin
[637] Dan. 10:5
[638] Dan. 10:11
[639] Cf. Dan. 10:21
[640] Dan. 12:5
[641] Dan. 12:6
[642] Rom. 3:18
[643] Dan. 10:17
[644] Dan. 10:18
[645] Dan. 10:19
[646] Calvin
[647] See I Jn. 5:14
[648] Dan. 10:12
[649] Heb. 11:6
[650] Jas. 1:6, 7
[651] Heb. 4:16
[652] Dan. 10:19
[653] Ps. 145:18, 19
[654] Note: "Michael, one of the chief princes" (Dan. 10:13), "Michael your prince" (Dan. 10:21). Michael, in addition to being the name of the angel, is the name of ten different men of the Old Testament. The name means "Who is like God?" He is called "the archangel" (Jude 9). Elsewhere he is mentioned by name only in this chapter and in Dan. 12:1. Perhaps he is the unnamed angel of I Thessalonians 4:16, though many suppose that to be Gabriel. He is always presented in Scripture as the watchful guardian of God's people, Israel. The idea of seven archangels is not Scriptural, being derived from Apocryphal and Pseudepigraphal books.
[655] Dan. 10:10
[656] Dan. 10:11
[657] Dan. 10:15
[658] Deut. 18:15-22; Jer. 1:6-9
[659] Dan. 10:15
[660] Dan. 10:16
[661] Dan. 10:17
[662] Dan. 10:18, 19
[663] i.e., merely human opponents
[664] ASV spiritual hosts of wickedness
[665] Eph. 6:11, 12
[666] Mal. 3:16; Ps. 139:16; Ez. 3:1 ff.
[667] Cf. Dan. 11:2
[668] i.e., for Israel
[669] Is. 37:38
[670] Dan. 4:8
[671] II Chron. 28:23
[672] I Cor. 8:4, 5
[673] I Cor. 10:19, 20
[674] cf. Jude 9; Rev. 12:7; Matt. 25:41
[675] Lu. 4:5-7
[676] II Cor. 4:4
[677] Eph. 2:2
[678] I Jn. 5:19, Jn. 8:44
[679] I Kings 22
[680] II Cor. 10:3, 4
[681] I Tim. 2:1-4
[682] Dan. 11:21 ASV
[683] Is. 5:20
[684] Dan. 118, cf. v. 9
[685] vid. notes concerning him in comments on chapter eight
[686] Mt. 24:15-21
[687] Dan. 11:32
[688] Dan. 11:32
[689] Dan. 11:34, 35
[690] Dan. 11:33
[691] Dan. 11:34, 35
[692] vid. 12:1 ff
[693] Dan. 10:14
[694] See Isaiah 26:20 for an illustrative passage.
[695] Dan. 11:40
[696] II Thess. 2:3, 4
[697] II Thess. 2:8, 9
[698] Dan. 7:25 cf. 7:11
[699] Dan. 8:11
[700] Dan. 8:25
[701] Dan. 7:25; 9:27; Rev. 17:10, 17; 13:5
[702] Ironside and Gaebelein.
[703] Reminds us of Hitler's reputation.
[704] Dan. 11:40
[705] II Thess. 2:8, 9
[706] Dan. 7:8, 20
[707] Rev. 17:13
[708] …for that must be the meaning of “whirlwind ...chariots…horsemen…ships”
[709] for such is the obvious meaning of "the glorious land" to the expatriated old patriarch who wrote the words
[710] S. P. Tregelles
[711] Dan. 11:37
[712] Dan. 11:38
[713] Dan. 11:40
[714] …at that time ruling Egypt, the old-time king of the south
[715] Ezekiel 38 was usually read at this point
[716] Dan. 11:43
[717] Dan. 11:41
[718] Dan. 11:44
[719] Joel 3:16
[720] e.g., G. H. Lang
[721] Josh. 5:13-15
[722] II Ki. 6:15-17
[723] Is. 37:35, 36
[724] Mt. 26:53
[725] Jer. 30:4-6
[726] Rev. 16:10
[727] Jer. 30:7
[728] II Thess. 2:1
[729] II Thess. 2:2
[730] ASV Marg. Matt. 28:19, 20
[731] Mt. 13:30, 40-43 ASV
[732] Heb. wise ones
[733] I Pet. 2:19-25
[734] I Pet. 4:12-16
[735] Gen. 1:6; Ps. 19:1
[736] Ex. 24:10
[737] Ps. 8:3; Gen. 1:16; Ps. 147:4; Judg. 5:20; Gen. 37:9
[738] Mt. 13:43
[739] I Cor. 15:40; Rev. 2:28; J. M. fuller in The Bible Commentary
[740] Dan. 2:7
[741] Gen. 14:22
[742] Acts 1:6
[743] Acts 1:6
[744] Dan. 12:6 ASV
[745] Heb. 6:13
[746] Ps. 749
[747] Rom. 15:4
[748] Dan. 12:8, cf. v.6
[749] Rev. 19, 20
[750] Dan. 9:27, cf. Rev. 11:2, 3; Dan. 7:25; Mt. 24: 21, 22
[751] H. A. Ironside, Lectures on Daniel the Prophet

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