THE BOOK OF PHILIPPIANS
J. Deering, AncientPath.net
(Please note that I am not a Greek scholar. My language research uses the same tools available to most pastors.)
One of the important aspects of good bible study is to be able to reach down into the verse being studied and focus on the individual words, especially the words that carry the meaning of the sentence or clause. Doing this is called "word study." As I stated above, "I am not a Greek scholar." While my education did include New Testament Greek it certainly did not turn me into a Greek scholar. However I did learn to use the tools that are available for finding the usage and meaning of the words of New Testament Greek, and they make a remarkable difference in my understanding of passages where those words are used and have been an excellent source of confidence for the translation work of those who labor for the proper translation of the scriptures, especially our modern translators.
To begin this study we'll concentrate (we'll look up and comment) on a few words in each of the first two verses and then we'll comment on the verses as a whole.
As we work our way through Chapter One we'll keep changing our approach to word study (from in-depth to occasional) so that we don't get bogged down in looking at the trees and not the forrest.
The Greek word used here (doulos) is a very simple one. Sometimes we amplify the meaning so that the width and breadth of this word portrays the depth of its concept in the New Testament. But here in Philippians, if we had no other scriptures to amplify our knowledge, Paul simply states that He and Timothy are slaves of Christ Jesus. They consider that they have no life of their own; they have been bought out from the market place for the sole purpose of being slaves to their new owner, Jesus Christ. Some other words come to mind like enslaved; enthralled; subservient, not free but bond (bound). Two men bound in servanthood.
In this particular case Paul chose the masculine form of the word to give us the word picture of the powerful, responsible, aggressive male slave – muscular, able, yet dominated and weak in his own power. Under his master’s control, owned, ruled, probably branded, slave.
But we mustn’t end our thought with the slaves because the owner of these slaves is The Lord Jesus Christ. These men have willingly and willfully asked to be His slaves. Paul and Timothy had become the slaves of Almighty God, His personal property and while our Christian theology tells us that He is a good God and that He is gracious through His Son to us all in very special ways… Paul still wants to tell us that as far as he is concerned, he and Timothy consider themselves to be just slaves.
Dare we ask ourselves how we consider ourselves in relationship to Jesus Christ? Are we the “special child,” the little boy, the little princess, the powerful chair person of a committee, the ruling elder or deacon? “Why, church just can’t get along with out me!” How sad, our pattern is that of the slave. No rights, no say as to what jobs we will do or not do. While others around us are people of power and position – we have a straw bed in the barn, because we’re slaves.
If you were to look, as I have this week, at the reference books you would find many words from the same Greek root word for slave that give us hints as to how the people of that age viewed servanthood.
One who ministers, one who is enslaved, an attendant, a domestic, a “house” servant, a “hired man,” a hireling, a waiter, a server, a worker, a worker bound V.S. a free man, one in bondage, one under bondage.
There’s no word in New Testament Greek for the “bond servant,” often described as the freed slave who returns to the owner to be slave for free, no golden earring found there. That doesn’t mean that this situation did not exist at the time, only that no one wrote of it using a specific word to denote it. When we see it now in a translation or version it is because of our understanding of the whole of the New Testament teaching concerning those in bondage to Jesus Christ and our translations, versions, and paraphrases include such “amplified” language to teach greater truths. For indeed our place before God as ones who believe upon the Lord Jesus Christ is that of the adopted son who has certified, before God, that their choice is to be the servant of the other family members and of Him. Each member of the family serves the other – by choice. Our relationship to Christ is that of the certified, bonded, slave. No other relationship exists for the believer – it is by Grace alone and not of works. Paul’s usage of his language leaves us with the word “slave.”
The Greek word here for “saints” is hagios. It’s often translated “saints,” “set apart,” or “separate.” The word precedes New Testament Greek and comes out of cultic uses. The concept of the uses of the word is “of the quality possessed by things and persons that could approach divinity.” If you had that quality you could go before your god, in person, to make requests or whatever. If you had a graven image and it met the specifications to do so, you could place it on an altar and it could be in the presence of your god – by virtue of its quality. If you sacrificed an animal and cooked it in a certain way – it would become acceptable before a god. That quality, when used of a person, is called “saint.”
We see the word used in the New Testament in a very similar way. Here’s a list of uses:
Consecrated to God, Holy, set apart to, and not set apart from, God, a description of God’s prophets, a description of John the Baptist, a description of the Nation of Israel, the position of Christians and their children, the quality of the Sanctuary of God, a description of the front and outer walls of the temple (the Holy Place).
This word indicates that God is approachable. This word indicates that the Christian is one who may approach God. Christians have the quality of “able to approach the one who is approachable by Christians.” Sounds like circular reasoning, but non-the-less it’s true.
The mercy seat of God, Jesus the Christ sitting upon it – the seat of Glory, the place of satisfaction (propitiation) and He is the one who satisfies. He is the propitiation. The place of the Mercy Seat on earth was in the Tabernacle and then in the Temple, the “Holy of Holies.” Quite literally it was the “approachable of approachables.” No other place can one sit except the mercy seat of God, no other person can sit there except the expression of mercy, the Son of God, Jesus Christ.
As SAINTS, we have been proclaimed “those who may approach the approachable of approachables – the almighty creator and sustainer God of the Universe, because we have chosen to love His Son – by grace, not of works.
Overseers, bishops, elders, the presbytery – Many different words used to bring meaning to our minds.
Our Christian world is full of words and meaning that have long since taken on lives of their own. The church that we know is full of organization and committees. We often elect individuals to fulfill certain roles in the body such as elders, deacons, trustees, so on and so forth.
Philippi was a missionary work established by believers from Ephesus (not too far away). Both new churches established before there were churches and committees or even full-time pastors!
Leadership within the local church was by the body recognizing the gifts that God had dispersed among the members of the body. Leadership was a matter of the members seeing each other’s specialties and recognizing them as gifts from God. Don’t loose this thought, we’ll be back to this in a moment.
The Greek word used here is episkopois. Broken down it consists of three basic parts. First is the prepositional prefix “epi.” Prepositions are simple little words that show “place.” Up, down, before, after, above, about, through, into, out of, on top of, under, over, touching (tangent), in, out, and so on.
Here’s a list of possible literal translations (not all) for the word epi.
On, upon, hang on (like a gallows), at, near, before (before a person like the defendant before the judge).
Here’s a list of possible figurative translations (not all) for the word epi:
"Over," as in having power, authority, or control, over others. It can mean “on the basis of” an appeal to authority – i.e., this product is better than that product on the basis of Jacky Onassis uses it. "Against" is another word of power, like a single finger pressed against a hole in a dyke may stop the dyke from failing. Or it can have the simple meaning of the word “to”, as in a list of powerful thoughts “in addition to…”
The middle of the word (the root of the word) epis-kop-oi has some varied meanings, however listen to them and let your mind think about what they have in common.
Kopazow – stop, cease, rest
Kopetos – mourn, lament
Kopay – cut down, slaughter
Kopaw – weary, tired from labor, work, toil, strive, struggle
Kopos – trouble difficulty
The epis-kop-OI at the end makes it plural.
Put it all together and you have episkopoi, those who oversee the mourners and laborers. Now remembering our previous paragraph - There are those among the local body of Christ that you can see who obviously have the gifts necessary to organize and see to the physical and spiritual needs of those who mourn, suffer, and labor. These are the men and women who seek others in these struggles to help and bring relief. These are the organizers who make everyday life more tolerable, in Christ, through their gifts of organization, leadership, and prayer. These are the episkopoi.
Too often our modern church bodies elect leaders from lists of available bodies. Leadership in the body of Christ ought to be obvious to us, and recognition of their gifts and labors gives them the title of Overseer or Elder, bishop, and not the vote of office or even from a list of those whose lives qualify for service. Like the ordination of a Pastor and the sending off of the Missionary we see God’s calling and hand upon them and agree with God that these are His workers. Not meeting the lists of standards does not make an episkopoi a non-episkopoi – it merely eliminates them from doing this work as an official representative of a local body of Christ. A believing harlot who’s life is the example of caring for others needs desperately to turn-around from her sin, but she is an episkopoi non-the-less, for it is God who enables her to minister to the physical and spiritual needs of others. In her current sinful condition she is not allowed to be an episkopoi in the name of her local body of believers.
We don’t need more chosen/elected elders, overseers or bishops. We need to recognize the men and women God has risen up to this position and recognize and support them in their ministries to the Body of Christ – regardless of whether their lives pass the tests in the lists. If their lives pass the tests in the lists of qualifications – then they may further represent their local body of Christ in their ministries publicly.
There is one other use of Episkopos and that is the Episkopos of God, called wrongly “the Bishop” in 1 Peter 2:25. It is not a reference to an office held in the larger body of Christ, nor is it a political office of power, it is instead those like Paul, Timothy, or Lydia, whom God has called to lead in the larger Christian arena in selfless giving of support and care to those who labor and suffer. This is the one who will be self-evident and a “man among men (sic)” for the cause of Christ. Their life will determine whether or not they may represent the body of Christ as an “officer.”
The Greek word Diakonois is normally transliterated (the English word sounds like the Greek word) as Deacons. Once again we have a prepositional prefix to this word. “Dia” is that prepositional. Let’s look at its meanings.
Through – as in a route or road through a bridge, in one side and out the other – through.
Through – as in finishing a route. “I started the trip and when I got to the end I was through.
After – as in finishing a route and arriving at a time after the passage, “I’ll get there when I’m through.”
It can also mean always, continually, constant, during, all day. It can also have meanings like “I’m through with you,” or even “by word of mouth” (through mouth, through the phone, etc.) And, of course, “the recognition of sin comes through the Law.”
It is a word of agency, something happens through something else.
There are only two words in the New Testament that have the center of the word in common – these are even harder to discern what they have in common.
Koniaw – Whitewash (to cover over, as in through and through, or plastered, as in Noah and the Ark, the Ark was "plastered" with Pitch. The pitch and forgiveness have the same picture of what was going on in each instance.)
Koniortos – To shake the dust off
Obviously these root words have to do with cleanliness, ways to remove filthiness. In the Old Testament we have the concept of Atonement, God “sweeping sin under the rug” until Christ would pay the price in Sacrifice. But this is the New Testament – Sacrifice has been applied. The text at 1 John 1:9 ff shows us what these words have in common – Confession and Repentance. “If I am faithful to confess (agree with God) and repent (turn around) – He is faithful to continue to cleanse and forgive my post salvation wickedness.” No longer sweeping that sin under the rug, but forgiving it and forgetting it.
So Dia-Kon-oi (the oi means plural again) has to do with those who God calls out in ministry who perform the “dusting and cleaning” of people’s lives within the body of Christ. They are the ones who you will find at the homes of the sick and dying, those you will find at the funeral homes, helping to hold the family together in such awful times of trouble. They are the ones who come along side and pray, help, feed, comfort, console, counsel, encourage towards confession and repentance and help lead them to Godly fellowship and forgiveness (The Diakonoi or Deacons).
Everything said about the Episkopoi (elders) applies here as well. The Diakonoi are not voted, not made, not appointed. God generates them and puts them in the body. It is our job to recognize them and support them and encourage them in their heart breaking work.
Now we come to a very familiar word and concept – Grace.
The Greek word for grace is Charis (Gk Xaris). Unlike the words we have studied so far Charis is a stand-alone word. In this text it is a noun. Let’s look at some words that have Charis as the root meaning in them:
Chara – Literally: Joy, figuratively: a person or thing that causes joy or is the object of joy
Charakaw – to mark, stamp, brand, or imprint
Charataer – to impress (print) or an impression (the hole left from impressing something), a reproduction, i.e., “He formed man as a reproduction of His own form.”
Charidzomi – something freely given, freely giving, to remit, forgive, pardon (an interesting sidelight is that the old testament word for “pitch,” that sticky stuff made from tree sap which Noah used to cover the Ark so that it would not leak – is the same word used for “forgiveness” in the Old Testament. The Ark was covered in forgiveness – the grace of God.)
Charis – graciousness, attractiveness, favor, grace, help, goodwill, an act of granting one of these things to another, the reception of one of these things, a gift, a good deed, a delight, something delightful.
Grace can be possessed
Grace can be stored, piled up, collected
Grace can be a “state” (the quality of a position)
Grace can be done or received
Grace can be a work – it has results, it does work (not grace VS works)
Those who belong to Him receive the fullness of His grace (all that there is, there is no grace that the believer does not receive).
Christians “stand under grace,” the authority and blessings of God.
Grace is administered by God through the Gospel of Jesus Christ.
Grace is given through (by means of) God’s Holy Spirit.
There are a number of “catch phrases” that we use to represent God’s grace, but in reality it is to big a concept to relegate to a simple phrase. Our God is gracious, everything He does is gracious, and He can not act in any other manner or way. Grace is His “MOD” (mode of operation); His work can be identified by it. All receive His precious grace in their lives but only His family members receive all of His grace.
Figuratively, peace becomes:
Harmony (Melchizedek, the King of Peace – the King
Rest – from persecution
A route – the way of peace
A method – the process of peace
A quality or manner – peaceably, peacefully
To make peace – to settle a dispute
A goal – to strive for peace, health, or welfare
A greeting – “May the peace of God….”
The quality of the Messianic Kingdom – Peaceful
Peace if offered by Christ
Peace is brought by Christ
Peace is overseen by Christ
Peace is made possible by Christ
Peace is granted by Christ
Peace is one of the major characteristics of God
Christ is the Peace-Maker, His angels proclaimed, “Let there be Peace … to men of good will,” those whose wills turn them to Jesus, only then are they “good.”
While the Trinity is not directly spoken of here it is understood that those things which come from God and from the Christ, come through the power of the Holy Spirit. All the qualities that are spoken of Elohim in the Old Testament are spoken of Jesus Christ in the New Testament.
It would be good to see the coincidence of Elohim in the Old Testament and Jesus the Christ in the New Testament. One God, one essence.
The Father - eternally existing
The Son - Eternally emanating, eternally generated, at every moment He is "Born" of the Father.
The Holy Spirit - Eternally proceding, at every moment He is brought forth by both the Father and the Son of God.
There is NO God like Thee. Jesus the Christ is God - do not let the Jehovah Witness erroneous translation of the New Testament confuse you.
Here's a quick list of meanings that are based on the Greek word translated here as from (apo):
(A pronoun is a word of place)
How the word apo was used historically
Literally: Separation from a person or thing - From, or Away From, sometimes translated, "of".
Figurative: Ideas like, "ashamed of," when one separates themselves from another based on shame, or love, or other strong emotion.
Figurative: Ideas like, "since," "when once...," "beginning with..." where there is a separation based on time
Figurative: Ideas like, "of an accident," "by the hands of....," I don't know what is to become of me," where there is a separation based upon cause, means, or outcome.
So, the meaning of the beginning of the phrase, "from God..." is that the subject of the phrase (grace and peace) has been moved or separated from God and transferred to the object of the phrase ("to you" the Philippians). Very much like the giving of a wrapped gift - when given, it is moved from the giver to the receiver. This translation of apo was an easy one, but it helps to see how the meaning works, especially when it comes to a more difficult translation. "I have a broken leg on account of (apo) my accident," where the broken leg came about through the circumstances of the accident where the result transferred from the accident to me was a broken leg.
If I were to write my own up-to-the-minute translation I would use the modern computer concept of "copied and pasted." God does not lose any grace when He gives it away. He is infinitely graceful, therefore we should see in His action this very action of "copying" and "pasting" from His grace to the believer. It adds a great deal of value to you, but is does not subtract from the Grace of God.
The Greek word for god is theos. We translate this word as god when it is not speaking of Jehovah Adoni and we translate it as God when it is. The Greeks did not capitalize words mid sentence but relied upon context. Theos sometimes has an article before it that, in English, would make it "the god," but Greek has no such convention. The article usually indicates the importance of the "word" in the sentence but does not have the sense that English does of "The God."
In historical texts theos indicates Divine beings. Certainly in the Christian context translators would translate theos (with or without the article) on the basis of the context of the sentence. Some liberal "scholars" would see no need to capitalize where they may be in disagreement according to their bias rather than context.
Just so you know, there are many verses in the new testament that DIRECTLY reference theos to Jesus Christ. Such as:
2 Peter 1:1 "Simon Peter, a bond-servant and apostle of Jesus Christ, to those who have received a faith of the same kind as ours, by the righteousness of our God and Savior, Jesus Christ."
Where the phrase should read "of our God and Savior: Jesus Christ." Most translations will avoid the direct reading to avoid denominational criticism (even the King James in this instance that renders the phrase: "through the righteousness of God and our Savior Jesus Christ."
So you can see three kinds of translation styles
represented here (notice punctuation and word choice):
Direct: "of our God and Savior: Jesus Christ"
Indirect: "of our God and Savior, Jesus Christ"
Very Indirect: "of God and our Savior, Jesus Christ"
"How do you tell?" you might ask. The context of the paragraph can be completed by reading verse 2 where God and Jesus are closely related to each other with no intervening modifiers, "the knowledge of God and of Jesus Christ." Thus the correct translation of verse 1 should so indicate: "of our God and Savior: Jesus Christ."
How do I know with such conviction that God and Jesus can be interchanged like this? Because the scriptures are filled with the truth that Jesus is God. Here are just a couple verses to identify this truth:
1 John 5:20
"And we know that the Son of God has come, and has given us understanding so that we may know Him who is true; and we are in Him who is true, in His Son Jesus Christ. This is the true God and eternal life." ("In Theos and in His Son Jesus Christ. This is the true God and eternal life.")
"the Word was God" (should be read with the emphasis on God not was - "was" here refers to "the beginning - he was God then too").
"and the Word became flesh"
"He existed before me" (but Jesus was born after John the Baptist)
John 1:29 Speaking of Jesus John said, "Behold the Lamb of God."
Romans 9:5 - depending on how you punctuate the sentence.
The Greek word for Father is patrose.
(Patrose, masculine, - Yes Father not mother, yet, Father with family (mother, Son, daughter)).
The Trinity as revealed in the scriptures is built around the concept of a family. God reveals himself to be as a "good father." Jesus is revealed as the father's good, adult, holy (separated completely unto His father), Son. You can see the actions of the Holy Spirit in a motherly role as the one who always is promoting her beloved Son. Those who believe become, very specifically, adult, holy, children of the Father who has given them to His Son through the power of the Holy Spirit (John 17).
Here are some words that have patrose as their root. Look and see the spiritual relationship he reveals in each of these Greek words.
The family, the emphasis is upon male heritage (from the Father), Patriarch VS Matriarch.
A nation (same male component)
A Family, as in Angelic families, still the word is masculine - Ephesians 3:15
This is the word the transliteration of Patriarch comes from, as used in "Abraham, father of the nation."
Literally, "Things handed down from the father." Galatians 1:14, "ancestral traditions," handed down from father to son through generations.
Patrose - our word in Philippians 1:2 - "Belonging to one's father, coming from one's father, such as land, inheritance, blessings, and gifts. - here, the gifts of Grace and Peace.
kai - simply, "and". Sometimes translated and sometimes silent and understood. Its meaning is to tie things together that all belong to each other in some way. It can be represented by "and," "but," or "," or not at all in English.
We'll take each word separately and list meanings and nuances.
Kurios, Kuriou, Kurion - has the simple meaning of strong, authoritative, valid, or ruler (as in most important).
It is often translated as "Lord," "lord," "or
The owner of possessions, the adult who owns and controls property.
A form of address which a slave uses toward their owner.
A person of high estate (husband VS wife).
How a son addresses his father (Sir).
In the religious sphere:
The designation of a god (comes from Oriental root)
Used almost like a personal name, "Lord Walter, or Lord O'Bryan."
Someone who ranks in the sphere of control over something or others.
To refer to "The Lord God Almighty" (Luke and Revelation)
Was applied to rulers who feigned deity.
Used of Jesus, the new Lord of the Christian body.
The way Jesus was often addressed at the peak of His ministry.
Often used when addressing both Jesus and His Father.
Kurow - things that Lords (lords) do
Confirm, ratify, validate
Conclude, decide, make valid, affirm, reaffirm.
Once again you can see that the context of the text can be very important in determining the proper translation.
Typical Translations include:
Lord - (Hebrew) Jehovah, Adon, Adonai,
(Greek) Kurios, Despotes
and uses them in the context of God, Christ, Masters, Men (sir), and Husbands. It is typically Capitalized when used of God and Jesus Christ, and not capitalized when used of men or angels (with the exception of the Angel of the Lord (Jesus Christ, pre-incarnate).
The introduction to the New American Standard
Version translates as the following:
God - Hebrew Elohim
Lord (as master) - Hebrew Adoni
Lord, HaShem, or Lord God (special case) - Hebrew Tetragramation ("The Four Letters"), "YHWH, or YHVH, or JHVH" the unspoken NAME of God (6,828 times in the Masoretic text) The consonants are "Yod-Heh-Vav-Heh. The exact spelling of the name of God is unknown. The Jews never spoke it, only wrote down the consonants in the word. During the 400 years of captivity, with the destruction of the Temple and the Priesthood, the pronunciation of the word was forgotten.
Modern readers have adapted either the transliteration of the name (Yahweh) or taken the vowels of the Hebrew word Adoni (Lord) and added them to the Tetragramation and made the English word Jehovah. Yahweh is not used in the NASB as there was no consensus among churches that this artificial word conveyed any sense of religiousness or devotion.
The word "YHWH" is an archaic third person, singular, imperfect, of the verb "to be," meaning, therefore, "He is." The first person, singular of the verb translated by the Hebrew is, "I am that I am." The Hebrew conception of monotheism is that God exists by himself for himself, and is the non-created (sometimes referred to as uncreated) Creator who is independent of any concept, force, or entity. He is deemed a living God, as contrasted with the lifeless gods of the "heathen" polytheists. God is presented as the source and author of life (cp. 1 Kings 18; Isaiah 41:26-29, 44:6-20; Jeremiah 10:10, 14; Genesis 2:7; and so forth.)
Later Masoretic texts (Post exilic) list YHWH with vowel points for the pronunciation as Yah-Ho-Vah in modern Hebrew, but the name is pronounced as Adonai. With the absence of the Temple in Jerusalem there is no place deemed worthy of speaking the true name of God.
Undertaking a study of the names of God is a wonderfully insightful adventure. Here is a web-link to His names as defined by modern scholars of Judaism.
Now let us put these words int use:
So, what have we learned about these first two verses?
We learned that Paul was not alone when he wrote this amazing letter. He was in the company of Timothy. Paul expressed his relationship with Timothy in their service to Jesus Christ as that of slaves - owned, operated, the Master's will not their own.
It probably could go with our saying, but Paul makes it clear that it is Jesus Christ that their service is for. No other master will do, no other master is worthy.
Paul's intent is to write to this particular assembly of believers. Why them? If we had to judge by only these two verses - they still tell us quite a lot about the Philippian believers.
First Paul addresses them as Saints - Holy Ones, set aside unto and for the purposes of God. Not set aside as the method of raising Paul or Timothy's support, not set aside from God but to God. All other definitions of being set aside can be totally dismissed. These people had established their assembly in the midst of Jews and Gentiles, and made a flourishing work out of it - there in Philippi, in the midst of all the ungodliness of Caesar worship and the presence of pagan (supposed) deities. These were people of character - the character of God the Father of the Lord Jesus Christ.
Then Paul sees fit to mention that his communication is not just to "his followers," but to all the Holy Ones at Philippi, including their gifted leadership. Paul stresses the point that these leaders, who have the gifts of ministry and care for the Body of Christ, are to be included as part of his address of thankfulness, they too should be the recipients of God's grace and peace.
Since God's blessings of grace and peace can only apply to those who are members of the Body of Christ - members of the Family of God - we see that Paul's letter is addressed to such as these. Those who deserve filed, heaping, packed-down, leveled-off, a full measure of both God's grace, to enable them with power and growth, and God's peace - that peace With God, that peace In God, that peace Of God that passes all understanding of the outside world. These are those who can minister and suffer, toil and be cut-down, serve and be imprisoned, with the Peace that only those who are In-Christ can receive and benefit from.
Finally we learn that Paul is insistent that we know the position of Jesus Christ is that of God. Everything there is in God is in Jesus Christ. They are distinct as two persons but only one in essence. God: Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. No more and no less - from before the beginning of all things - They were there as One.
A closing note to these two verses would be in Paul's choice of the word "Lord" for the title of Jesus Christ. Modern society knows little of authority and rank. We have come to believe that there is no authority besides ourselves, there is no truth - unless we think it's true. How sad that even many who believe have taken on the mantra of the world "I am," when there is only one "I Am." Lord, Master, King, God Almighty - and we had better remember that. As believers we hold the "Golden scepter" that allows us entrance into the presence of not just the King's house or His family, but into His very presence at the "Holy of Holies," any time we desire. We need to be very fearful when in His presence. He is Lord, but not as the "Lordship" espousers desire Him to be. "Dictator of The Law," is the Jesus of the modern Judaizers. "Be a child of the King, but you better be "working" or you'll be tossed out." "Act like a child of the King or you're not one." How sad after two thousand years we still yearn to return to the Law and worship it as the basis of salvation. Philippians 3 refers to them as the "false circumcision." "...there will also be false teachers among you, who will secretly introduce destructive heresies, even denying the Master..." 2 Peter 2:1-3.
New American Standard Bible (NASB)
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