Clarence E. Mason's "ESCHATOLOGY
SECTION III - The BIBLICAL
BY THE AUTHOR
Dr. Clarence E. Mason, Jr.
Philadelphia College of Bible
Edited by Dr. Clarence E. Mason, Jr.
THE BIBLICAL COVENANTS (See Scofield Ref. Bible, p. 1297) (New Scofield, pp.
- INTRODUCTION: TWO VIEWPOINTS
ON THE COVENANTS
Before naming and expositing the Biblical Covenants it is necessary to give
information about a humanly devised scheme of covenants produced by certain
theologians beginning about 100 years after the Reformation. Their viewpoint has
had far-reaching effect upon the Church and has obscured the Scriptural teaching
about God's covenants with men. The term Covenant Theology or the Theological
Covenants has been applied to this humanly concocted covenant theory.
- THE THEOLOGICAL COVENANTS: DEFINITION
This theory of the covenants involves the concept of three covenants which are
said to embrace God's redemptive purpose for mankind. The logical order for
these covenants (which is the reverse of their chronological development) is as
- The Covenant of Redemption was said to have been made
before creation between
the Persons of the Godhead, by means of which the divine arrangements for
salvation were made. The Father was to offer the Son, the Son was to give
Himself as a sacrifice for sin, and the Holy Spirit was to apply the benefits of
the death of the Son.
- The Covenant of Works was said to have been made by God with Adam in the
Garden of Eden prior to the Fall, promising eternal life for obedience and
warning that death would follow disobedience.
- The Covenant of Grace was said to have been made by God with Christ (or the
elect in Him) after the Fall, and under which eternal life is freely offered to
sinners on the faith principle.
It should be mentioned that this theory makes no distinction between Jew,
Gentile, and the Church in the program of God, but rather maintains that
everyone saved from the time of Adam until the consummation belongs to one great
covenanted community known variously as Israel (the nation) or the church
- ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT
It should be stressed that this theory of the covenants is a post-Reformation
development. None of the reformers knew anything about this theory, though
things which they wrote were later made to fit in with this scheme of the
covenants. Actually the theory did not become a part of Reformed Theology until
the middle of the 17th century.
After Calvin's death in 1564, Holland gradually became the center of Calvinistic
theological activity (replacing Switzerland) and an important product of that
activity was the development of the covenant theory. Though some of the ideas
related to the covenant theory are found in the writings of earlier German
theologians, credit must be given to the Dutch theologians Johannes Cocceius
(1602-1669) and Herman Witsius (1636-1708) for giving the theory precise and
comprehensive form. The development of the theory in Holland was actually an
outgrowth of the Arminian controversy (1603-1619). Theological tension was
high in Holland following the Synod of Dort (1619) and much sentiment had
been aroused against a prevalent extreme viewpoint on the doctrine of the
decrees and particularly against the teaching of double predestination (the
decrees of election and reprobation). It was at this time that Cocceius
advanced his theory concerning the Covenant of Grace and the Covenant of
Works, in which he soft-pedaled the doctrine of predestination, basing man's
redemption rather on a covenant instituted after the fall of man. This
teaching, of course, was rejected by the Reformed Church, but it threatened
a division in the church comparable to that caused by the Arminian revolt.
The Reformed Church's opposition to the theory continued until Witsius
introduced his idea of a third covenant (later known as the Covenant of
Redemption) which concerned God's saving purpose before the foundation of
the earth. The Reformed theologians were quick to see the possibility of
reconciling the doctrine of the eternal decrees with this new idea set forth
by Witsius. Therefore, the Reformed Church did an about face and embraced
the theory of the covenants. Consequently, Reformed Theology today also
bears the designation Covenant Theology.
It is well to keep in mind that the covenant theory had three definite
stages of development:
- The Covenant of Grace
Reference was made in the latter part of the 16th century by certain
German professors to a Covenant of Grace. These instances were isolated
accounts and treat the covenant in a very general way and consider it to
have begun with the fall of man.
- Hyperius in Marburg,
seems to have been the first to make mention of this covenant; this was
in 1561 in his work Topica Theologica.
- Olevianus, professor at
Heidelberg, in 1570, published his work The Covenant of Grace.
- Eglinus, professor at
Marburg, in 1600, published a treatise on this covenant and definitely
made it refer to all men (and not to the elect alone, or to Christ for
the elect, as others now do).
- Then, in Holland,
Cocceius, in the first half of the 17th century, fully developed his
idea on the Covenant of Grace.
- Writers in England and
Scotland also set forth their teaching on the subject, but somewhat
later than the period in which the German teachers wrote.
- The Covenant of Works
- Rollock in Scotland had
written on a Covenant of Works as early as 1596.
- Ames and Ball in the
early 17th century wrote concerning a Covenant of Works. However, Ball's
writings were not published until 1645, while the Westminster Assembly
was in session.
- In 1646, the Westminster
Assembly adopted the theory of the covenants, incorporating it in the
Westminster Confession of Faith.
- Cocceius was the most
significant writer on the Covenant of Works and the Covenant of Grace,
and he published an important book on the subject in 1648. Note that up
until this time only two covenants were mentioned in the theory of the
- The Covenant of Redemption
The third phase in the development of the-covenant theory had its
appearance in the Netherlands in the writings of Witsius in 1685. Up
till that time the covenants considered God's relations within man from
the time of Adam's creation till the end of man's history on earth.
Witsius, a disciple of Cocceius, sought a way of reconciling Cocceian
views with those of the orthodox Reformed groups. He came under the
condemnation of the Cocceians because his idea of a Covenant of Redemption
before the foundation of the earth was seized upon by the orthodox groups
to parallel the covenant theory with the doctrine of election. Thus, the
adoption of the theory of the three covenants by the orthodox groups stole
the thunder from their opponents, the Cocceians.
- THE FALLACIES OF COVENANT
- The principle of
interpretation known as spiritualization (the substitution of identity)
undergirds the whole system.
- The system emphasizes
extra-Biblical covenants at the expense of the
literal-historical-grammatical import of the Biblical covenants. Note the
following characteristics relative to a Biblical covenant:
- The Bible clearly
identifies God's covenant people (Romans 9:4).
- The institution of the
Bible covenants is clearly indicated in Scripture.
- The parties to the Bible
covenants are specified in Scripture.
- The terms of the Bible
covenants are clearly given in Scripture.
It is noteworthy that when a covenant is mentioned in the N.T., it is
possible to identify that covenant positively on the basis of the facts
above. When God makes covenants with His people. He does not keep them
in the dark concerning the nature and content of the covenants. Thus it
is seen that the covenants of Covenant Theology fail to meet the
requirements of a Biblical Covenant, and in the classic remark of the
great Dr. Park of Boston, they are seen to be of human devising, having
been "made in Holland and not heaven." Actually, through
spiritualization, Covenant Theology has superimposed its scheme of the
covenants upon Scripture, making the Biblical covenants conform to the
covenant theory by ignoring the historical and literal significance of
the Biblical covenants. The various Bible covenants are conceived of by
them as being merely steps in the administration of the Covenant of
- The system ignores the
Biblical distinction between Israel and the Church.
- The system is characterized
by a mixture of law and grace. Since this theory claims that all the Bible
covenants are merely different steps in the administration of the Covenant
of Grace, the Mosaic Covenant (LAW) is equated with the Covenant of Grace.
Such an interpretation can only lead to hopeless confusion, for it equates
law with grace (contra. John 1:17).
While there may be many things in Covenant Theology which are in accord
with Scripture, the system as a whole is totally inadequate to explain
God's program for Israel and the Church, and this is particularly evident
in the field of eschatology. Dr. Lewis S. Chafer's estimate of this system
is a fitting conclusion for this section:
"The theological terms. Covenant of Works and Covenant of Grace (and
Covenant of Redemption), do not occur in the Sacred Text. If they are to
be sustained it must be wholly apart from Biblical authority ... Upon this
human invention of two covenants Reformed Theology has largely been
constructed. It sees the empirical truth that God can forgive sinners only
by the freedom which is secured by the sacrifice of His Son -- anticipated
in the old order and realized in the new -- but that theology utterly
fails to discern the purposes of the ages, the varying relationships to
God of the Jews, the Gentiles, and the Church, with the distinctive,
consistent human obligations which arise directly and unavoidably from the
nature of each specific relationship to God. A theology which penetrates
no further into Scripture than to discover that in all ages God is
immutable in His grace toward penitent sinners, and constructs the idea of
a universal church, continuing through the ages, on the one truth of
immutable grace, is not only disregarding vast spheres of revelation but
is reaping the unavoidable confusion and misdirection which part-truth
- THE BIBLICAL COVENANTS
- Our definition of the two
categories of covenants, unconditional and conditional, has already been
given on p. 10, Sec. I, 6, d, (4).
- There are minor covenants
mentioned in the Scripture which should not be confused with the major
covenants, such as:
- Covenants between
individuals and individuals. Genesis 31:44; 1 Samuel 18:3
- Covenants between
individuals and groups. Genesis 26:28; 1 Samuel 11:1-2
- Covenants between nations
and nations. Exodus 23:32; 34:12,15; Hosea 12:1
- Miscellaneous covenant
Marriage bond Proverbs 2:17; Malachi 2:14
Laws of nature Jeremiah 33:21, 25
- In the Scofield scheme and
among many premillennialists eight covenants are usually designated as
covenants. They are:
The Edenic Genesis 1:26-28; 2:15-17
The Adamic Genesis 3:14-19
The Noahic Genesis 8:21-9:17 ,24-27
The Abrahamic Genesis 12:1-3ff.
The Mosaic Exodus 19:5-8ff.
The Palestinian Deuteronomy 28:63-68; 30:1-9
The Davidic 2 Samuel 7
The New Jeremiah 31:31-34; Hebrews 8:6-13, etc.
- Biblical covenants are
normally unconditional. All of the above are so designated except the Mosaic
Covenant, which is classified as conditional, "if... if... if... then I
- Three universal and general
covenants are to be observed: the Adamic, the Noahic, and the Edenic (in
that the whole race is represented as present in Adam in his failure). All
the other covenants are made with Israel or Israelites and apply primarily
and/or totally to them.
- Another method of
distinguishing the covenants is:
- Temporal - A covenant which
was instituted for a limited period and which having accomplished its
purpose is set aside, being superseded by another covenant without any
"carryover" of primary aspects of the temporal covenant. A
covenant is identical with a conditional covenant (e.g., the Mosaic
- Eternal - A covenant which
is identical with an unconditional covenant.
- Two viewpoints on the
covenants prior to the Abrahamic Covenant.
- The more generally received
viewpoint is that which has been previously expressed under B, 5 above,
and expanded under C and D, pp. 59-60.
- The viewpoint held by Dr.
C. Fred Lincoln and others favors the thought that all the major
covenants, clearly stated as such in the Scriptures, are made with the
Jewish people, and thus BEGIN with the Abrahamic Covenant. Through these
Israel entered into a special covenant relationship with "Jehovah, " their
- Among reasons cited for
this viewpoint are:
- Romans 9:4 definitely
states of Israelites: "to whom pertaineth the covenants."
- Ephesians 2:11-12 states
that Gentiles, prior to Christ, were "strangers from the covenants of
promise" and had "no hope" and were "without God in the world."
- Acts 3:25 says to the
Jews at Jerusalem "Ye are the children ... of the covenant."
- The more generally received
viewpoint would emphasize that in a very real sense the whole race of men
were represented in Adam as he was in the garden (under the Edenic
Covenant, Genesis 1:26-28; 2:15-17), and as he subsequently disobeyed and
fell; that all are included in the effects of that fall and the promise of
a Redeemer as recorded in the Adamic Covenant (Genesis 3:14-19); and that
the basis of all human government is found in God's command to the whole
race as represented by Noah (in the Noahic Covenant, Genesis
- Perhaps of the three it is
more generally questioned that the Edenic Covenant is one to be included
validly, since with Adam's sin all the provisions of the Edenic Covenant
ceased to exist, while in the case of all the other covenants certain
aspects of the covenants (sometimes all aspects) continue to be in force,
although another covenant may have been added.
- Although there may be
difference of opinion as to whether the Edenic and Adamic "Covenants"
should be called such, though the word is not used, all are in agreement
regarding the truths expressed.
- The Edenic Covenant,
according to Genesis 1:26-28; 2:15-17, governed the life of man after the
creation and before the fall. There arc seven elements to this covenant:
(Sec New Scofield, p. 5)
- He was to fill the earth
with a new order - man.
- He was to subdue the
earth for human uses.
- He was to have dominion
over the animal creation.
- He was to eat herbs and
- He was to till and keep
- He was to abstain from
eating the fruit of the tree of tile knowledge of good and evil.
- The penalty for
disobedience was death.
- THE ADAMIC COVENANT
(See SRB note, p.9;NewSRB, p. 7)
- The statement of the
covenant, Genesis 3:14-19. This covenant conditions the life of fallen man
and gives the promise of a Redeemer.
- The serpent, Satan's tool,
is cursed (14)
- The first promise of a
- The changed state of the
- Multiplied conception
- Motherhood linked with
- The domination of the man
- The earth cursed for man's
- The inevitable sorrow of
- Burdensome labor imposed
- Physical death imposed (19)
- The curse
- Upon Satan, Genesis
- Effect of sin - from
first place to lowest
- Satan was the tempter, 2
Corinthians 11:3,14; Revelation 12:9
- Brazen serpent - "Christ
made sin for us, " Numbers 21:5-9; John 3:14-15; 2 Corinthians 5:21
- Upon the woman. Genesis
- Greatly multiplied
- Pain in motherhood
- Man to be head over woman
(in his sinful estate, he would oppress her; especially prominent in
- Upon the man. Genesis
- Ground cursed because of
- Sorrow, sweat of face,
- Upon the ground, Genesis
Thorns and thistles; reluctant crops.
- The promise
The seed of the woman (Christ) was to bruise the head of the Serpent
(Satan). The line of the Seed: Seth, Genesis 4:25;
Noah, Genesis 5:29; Shem, Genesis 9:26-27; Abraham, Genesis 12:1-4;
Genesis 17:19-21; Jacob, Genesis 28:10-14; Judah, Genesis 49:10;
Samuel 7:5-17; Christ, Matthew 1:1,20,23.
- THE NOAHIC COVENANT
(See SRB note, p. 16; New SRB, p. 15)
Genesis 9:1-17. This covenant reaffirm s the conditions of life of fallen man
under the Adamic Covenant, and institutes the principle of human government to
curb the outbreak of sin since the threat of Divine judgment in the form of
another flood is removed.
- The relation of man to the
earth under the Adamic Covenant is confirmed, Genesis 8:21
- The order of nature is
confirmed. Genesis 8:22
- Human government is
established, Genesis 9:1-6
- The earth is secured against
another universal judgment by water, Genesis 8:21; 9:11
- A prophetic declaration is
made that descendants of Canaan, one of Ham's sons, will be servant to his
brethren (fulfilled in Gibeonites, Joshua 9:21-27).
- A prophetic declaration is
made that Shem will have a peculiar relation to Jehovah, Genesis 9:26-27
- A prophetic declaration is
made that from Japheth will descend the "enlarged" races, Genesis 9:27
The Covenants above are universal and general. Those that follow are
addressed to a given nation (Israel), and must so be understood.
- THE ABRAHAMIC COVENANT
(See New SRB, p 19) (after John F. Walvoord,
Bib. Sac., Jan. 1945)
- Importance to
Conditions life and blessing of Abraham and his seed. Important to
Premillennialism in relation to God's purpose for Israel as a nation and
God's promise of permanent possession of the land. Two main issues:
- Is Israel promised a
permanent national existence?
- Is Israel promised
possession of the land perpetually?
- Analysis of the Covenant,
- There are seven main
factors in the Abrahamic Covenant
- Promise of a great nation
through Abraham cp. b, (1) below
- Personal blessing to
Abraham cp. b, (2) below
- The name of Abraham shall
be great cp. b, (2) below
- Abraham to be a blessing
to other scp. b, (2) below
- Blessing on those
blessing Abraham cp. b, (3) and (4) below
- Curse on those cursing
Abraham cp. b, (3) and (4) below
- All nations to be blessed
through Abraham cp. b, (3) and (4) below
- Four major promises
contained in the covenant
- National promises given
to Israel; cp. a, (1) above
- A land. Genesis 12:1;
13:14-15,17; 15:7; 17:8; 18:21
- A seed, Genesis 13:16;
- Riches, Genesis 15:4;
- Personal promises given
to Abraham; cp. a, (2), (3), (4) above
- I will bless thee.
- I will make thy name
great. Genesis 12:2
- He will be a blessing,
- Principle of blessing or
cursing: because of attitude toward Abraham's seed. Genesis 12:3 cp. a,
(5), (6), (7) above
- Promise of universal
blessing through Abraham above cp. a, (5), (6), (7) above
Gen. 12:3 Fulfilled chiefly through Christ cp. a, (5), (6), (7) above
We find that this covenant is basic to all Israel's covenants, and
contains in germ form all that was later amplified to Israel by
- Confirmation and
enlargement in later Scriptures:
- Gen. 13:14-17; 15:18-217
Abraham is promised the title to all the land. The promise of a seed
amplified to "dust of earth."
- Gen. 15:1-7. The Seed to
be Abraham's own, not Eliezer's.
- Gen. 17:1-18. Additional
- The covenant solemnly
confirmed, Genesis 15:17-21; 17:1-2
- Abram is given the name
of Abraham, symbol of the promise that he would be the father of many
nations. Genesis 17:5
- Kings were promised to
him. Genesis 17:6
- All the land of Canaan
was given to his seed as an everlasting possession, Genesis 17:8
(later expanded, Psalms 72:8-11)
- God promises to be the
God of Abraham's posterity, Genesis 17:9
- Confirmation came after
Abraham's unbelief and disobedience, showing covenant could not be
- Historic fulfillment of the
- Principle guiding the
interpretation is established:
Portions that have been fulfilled were fulfilled literally. So we
therefore insist the remaining prophesied parts must be fulfilled
- Parts of the covenant have
been fulfilled in part or whole:
- A great nation Israel
came into existence, not just a spiritual seed.
- Other nations beside
Israel came from Abraham (from Ishmael, Esau, Moab, Ammon, cp. Lot,
- Personal blessing came to
Abraham. Revered by Jew, Arab, Christian.
- Abraham and his seed have
been a blessing to the whole world, through writers of Scripture, our
Lord Jesus Christ, and founders of early church.
- Nations have been blessed
who blessed Israel, cursed who cursed Israel. Contrast Babylon, Assyria,
Egypt, Spain, Czarist Russia, and Hitler Germany, with England, United
- Promise of kings from
Abraham has been fulfilled in kingdoms of Israel and Judah.
- Assets of the covenant as
yet unfulfilled completely:
- The existence of the
nation Israel forever.
- The possession of the
land by the nation Israel forever.
- The everlasting blessing
of the nation.
Thus, while parts of the covenant have been fulfilled, the eternal
aspects never have been.
- Are the promises of the
Abrahamic Covenant conditional or unconditional?
We realize that the premillennial hope is based on the unconditional
interpretation of the covenant. Under the former definitions of
unconditional and conditional covenants, the blessing for obedience and
discipline for disobedience aspects could be urged to prove that certain
aspects of the Abrahamic Covenant could be cancelled out, due to Israel's
failure. Under the new definitions, failure of Israel cannot be made to
cancel out an unconditional covenant. A conditional covenant can be revoked
if the conditions are not met, but an unconditional covenant can never be
revoked, since God promises to do everything. The issue of Premillennialism
or Amillennialism is settled largely at this one point.
- Arguments of the
Amillennialists that this covenant is a conditional covenant
- Conditions may be
involved though not stated. They use Jonah as an illustration, "yet
forty days and Nineveh shall be overthrown," but because of repentance
it was not. They argue, from God's response to Nineveh's repentance,
that there were unstated conditions; hence, it may be with the Abrahamic
Ans. We note first of all that it is impossible to point to any stated
condition, for they rest their case on unstated or implied conditions .
Then, it must be noted, the case of Jonah is not a case in point. With
Jonah's message there was no covenant made. Jonah simply announced doom.
It is always a lector that whenever a sinner repents, God may and
usually does turn aside judgment. There is no parallelism between the
preaching of Jonah and the Abrahamic Covenant; the former is not a
covenant, but simply a specific prophecy to be fulfilled at a specific
time. All covenants have continuance over a period of time have details
or specifications. This prophecy has none of the aspects of a covenant.
Hence, the analogy is invalid.
- Obedience is always a
prerequisite for blessing.
Ans. Obedience is the prerequisite to blessing, not to the covenant
itself. According to our new definition, an unconditional covenant may
and usually does have conditional blessings. Since we no longer define a
conditional covenant as including the idea that its distinctive is
blessing for obedience and discipline for disobedience, the argument can
have no force against the unconditionality of the covenant.
- The Abrahamic Covenant
was confirmed to Abraham "because thou hast obeyed my voice," Genesis
Ans. It must be noted that this passage necessarily takes us back to
Genesis 12:1-3, where God announced the covenant in the first in stance.
All of Abraham's spiritual experiences and growth were the proper fruit
of obedience to the covenant. In this sense they are in extricably
linked with the covenant as effect, but not as cause. The covenant did
not rest upon the continued obedience of Abraham or that of Abraham's
seed. but upon the faithfulness of the God who gave the covenant. The
covenant was reaffirmed in Genesis 22 for Abraham's comfort after
obedience, but it was not the result of that obedience. having been
given to Abraham before he left Ur or his kindred or his father's house,
and before he came into the land which God promised to show him. The
covenant rested upon the faithfulness, not of Abraham, but the
- The rite of circumcision
-- an act of obedience -- was required, proving it was conditional.
Ans. It must be noted that the rite did not establish the covenant. The
rite was imposed because the covenant was operative. The receipt of the
rite did not establish the covenant for the individual circumcised, but
imposed the blessings of the existing covenant upon him. The analogy of
Romans 4 would be appropriate here. In that passage Paul argues that
Abraham did not receive righteousness through a rite of religion
(circumcision), but that the rite was given as an outward sign that he
had already been declared righteous by God through faith. In other
words, Genesis 15:6 preceded both logically and chronologically the
institution of circumcision in Genesis 17:9ff. Circumcision was not the
covenant, but the sign of an already existent covenant.
- Scofield, etc., hold that
blessing for Israel depends on their remaining in the land; hence, it is
a conditional covenant.
Ans. We are again greatly relieved of pressure from this objection
through the new definition of a conditional covenant. Thus, no condition
of blessing after a covenant is formally instituted has anything to do
with the way the covenant was instituted, which alone determines whether
the covenant was conditional or unconditional. Further, it is an open
question whether remaining in the land was the condition of blessing.
The issue was obedience whether in the land or out of the land (e.g.,
Daniel in Babylon and Persia). God commanded Jacob to go down into Egypt
(Genesis 46:2-4) and God blessed him there. During the period of Judges
and during the period of Kings, Abraham's descendants were many times
not blessed because of disobedience, even though they were in the land.
Hence, the question of blessing is always a question of obedience on the
part of Israel, not a question of whether they are in or not in the
land. The covenant remained unaffected in either event.
- The question is raised,
"Why was Esau excluded from the land if the covenant is unconditional?"
Ans. This objection is invalid, because Esau was not in the line of "the
seed" (Romans 9:7-12); hence, he was not promised the land. Also,
according to the new definitions, even if a covenant is conditional, it
is not implicit in such a condition that there be a cut-off point. This
is all the more true of an unconditional covenant.
- The certainty of
fulfillment is not based on its being unconditional, but on the perfect
obedience of Christ.
Ans. This is true, but the very fact that Christ came was made necessary
because the covenant demanded the Blesser should come, and that was
irrevocable. Further, the argument is non sequitur.
- The covenant that
promised a multiplied seed was fulfilled in Solomon's day.
Ans. The multiplied seed in Solomon's day may well be considered a
partial fulfillment, but not by any stretch of the imagination a
complete fulfillment. David had already been informed by the Holy Spirit
that the territory covered by Messiah's kingdom would be "from sea to
sea and from the river unto the ends of the earth" (Psalms 72:8), not only
from the river of Egypt to the Euphrates (Gen. 15:18). Further, there
are many millions more Jews today than in Solomon's day.
- Arguments of
Premillennialists that the covenant is unconditional
- All Israel's covenants
are unconditional and eternal except the Mosaic:
- Abrahamic, Genesis
- Palestinian, Ezekiel
- Davidic, 2 Samuel 7:16
- New Covenant, Isaiah 61:8
- Original promise (Gen.
12:1-3) was given to Abraham without any conditions. God "had said" it
before he left Ur.
- Covenant was confirmed by
reiteration and enlargement.
- Solemnized by recognized
method of confirming an oath. Genesis 15:7-21; Jeremiah 34:18. The
sacrificed animals signify an unbreakable blood covenant.
- A visible sign,
circumcision, was given, Genesis 17:9-14.
- The covenant was
confirmed by birth of Isaac and reiterated by promises to him, Genesis
- The covenant was
confirmed to Jacob, Genesis 28:12-13.
- The covenant was
fulfilled in part, in spite of disobedience.
- (9) The covenant was
confirmed in spite of disobedience, Jeremiah 31:31-41. (10) The covenant
was declared immutable in N.T., Galatians 3:17-18; Hebrews 6:17-18.
- Future fulfillment of
Abrahamic Covenant to Israel
(cp. Section VI, C.
(Similarities and Contrasts between the Present Age and preceding ages -
- Will Israel continue as a
NATION or will the Church fulfill Israel's promises?
Bib. Sac. 1945)
- This is a decisive
question of interpretation. It determines the program of the future.
- N.T. contrasts between
Israel and the Gentiles
- Israel is addressed as
a nation after the institution of Church, Romans 10:1; Acts 3:12.
- Term "Jews" is
constantly used as distinct from "church" or "Gentiles," 1 Corinthians
- The future is revealed
for unbelieving Jews and for unbelieving Gentiles, Matthew 24-25;
- Israel as a whole is
declared to have inherited promises, not the Church, Romans 9:3-4.
- A Jew is not made into
a Gentile, nor vice versa, but both are made a new man in Christ,
Ephesians 2:15. This shows the Gentiles are not viewed as Israel in
the New Testament.
- Natural Israel and the
- Natural Israel seen
since formation of Church, 1 Thessalonians 2:14-16.
- Argument of Romans 11:
natural Israel is blinded, and spiritual Israel is in the Church; it
predicts a glorious future for an Israel after the "fullness" of the
Gentiles has come in:
- Completion and
rapture of Church
- Completion of God's
dealings with Gentiles in judgment
- Preservation of Israel
as nation to the present is a miracle. This shows that the Church is
not Israel in the N. T.
- Spiritual Israel and
Gentile Christians are contrasted in the N.T.
- Romans 9:6. Contrast
between Israelites who receive national promises and those inheriting
- Galatians 6:15-16. Two
classes: those who "walk according to this rule" (Gentile believers in
Church) and "the Israel of God" (saved Jews in Church).
- Every use of "Israel"
or "Jew" in the N.T. is an allusion to racial origin or Israel's
national entity; it is never used of a Gentile believer or the Church
corporately. This shows that believers do not become Jews in this age.
- Has Israel been
Matthew 21:43 says the kingdom is given to people bringing forth fruits.
not unbelieving Jews, but any believing people. This refers to the
present "mystery" form of the kingdom in men's hearts, while the
literal, earthly kingdom is in abeyance due to Israel's rejection of her
Messiah. That Israel will be preserved nationally until the earthly
reign of Christ is set up, fulfilling the covenants, is declared in
- God has not cast off
Israel, vv. 1-2
- Always a remnant, v.3
- Unbelief never caused
God to cast off His people, v.4
- Present election is one
of grace, v.5
- Present blindness will
be lifted, v.25
- All (God's) Israel will
be saved, v.26
- This is a fulfillment
of a covenant, v. 27
- Gifts and calling of
God without repentance (i.e., not rescinded), v. 29
- Will Israel possess the
- The promise to Abraham,
- It is confirmed by the
Palestinian Covenant, Deuteronomy 30:1-10
- It is confirmed by the
promise of Israel's regathering
- Dispersions were
prophesied, Deuteronomy 28:63-68
- Dispersions do not
abrogate promise to land; they are the penalty for sin
- Promises of final
regathering have not been fulfilled, Isaiah 66:20-22; Jeremiah 23:3-8
- Not fulfilled by
Solomon, 1 Kings 4:21
- Not permanent
- Not all lands
possessed or occupied that were given Abraham in Genesis 15:18-21
- Scripture given after
Solomon's day predicts future fulfillment, Isaiah 66:19-20; Jeremiah
- Will Israel be restored?
(Bib. Sac,, October 1945)
- Romans 11:26 has already
shown "Israel" here is not "all believers, " but those repentant Jews
who will constitute "God's Israel" as a "holy nation"
after the return
of Christ (when followers of the Beast will have been purged out).
- Nature of this
deliverance, Isaiah 59:20; Zion is always a reference to Jerusalem,
unless specified as heavenly Zion; even then it is heaven, not the
Church which is meant, Hebrews 12:22-23.
- When will Israel's
restoration take place? Romans 11:25 - after the end of Gentile period;
after Israel s blindness is lifted.
Thus, we believe:
- Israel will have a
future permanent national existence.
- Israel will have
permanent possession of the land
- Israel will have a
future blessing which she was promised.
- THE MOSAIC COVENANT Ex
(See New SRB, p.95)
This covenant had governed Israel's conduct as a redeemed people. It was given
to them, however, not as a means of redemption or attainment unto a covenant
relation to God, but because, they were in right relation to God as a redeemed
nation under God's covenant with that people descended from Abraham. (Chafer,
Systematic Theology, VII, p. 98) Its purpose was to provide a way whereby this
people Israel might become:
a peculiar treasure Exodus 19:5
a kingdom of priests Exodus 19:6
an holy nation Exodus 19:6
- The covenant mentioned in
Exodus 19:5 is a new covenant, and not a restatement of the existing
Abrahamic Covenant as seen from the following considerations:
- There is a break between
v.4 and v.5. Through v.4 God is reviewing His gracious dealing with
Israel. In v.5 God introduces certain conditions through which Israel may
receive blessings, and requirements are imposed which must be fully met
before blessing will come.
- The contrasts in Genesis 12
and Exodus 19 show that the covenants differ. Genesis 12 is unconditional
- "I will, " while Exodus 19 is conditional - "if... if... if... then I
- In Hebrews 12 the contrast
between Sinai (w. 18-19) and Zion (w. 22-24) shows that a law covenant and
a grace covenant are mutually exclusive.
- The parallel passage in
Deuteronomy 4:8-14 shows that the covenant referred to is that of the 10
- This Mosaic Covenant is
contrasted with the New Covenant and the Abrahamic Covenant which are based
- The Mosaic Covenant is not
a part of the New Covenant, Galatians 4:19-31; Hebrews 8:7ff.; Jeremiah
- The Mosaic Covenant is
contrasted with the Abrahamic, Galatians 3:15-18; Romans 4:13-16
- To whom does the Mosaic
- Not to the Gentiles, Romans
- Not to Christians, Romans
6:14; Galatians 3:24-25; Acts 15:1,5,10-11,15,17,19-20, 24,28-29
- It is for Israel alone,
Romans 9:4; Acts 3:25
- Law and Grace cannot be
mixed. Romans 4:16; 11:6; Galatians 5:2-4
- Analysis of the Mosaic
The Mosaic Covenant, often referred to as "the Law," may be divided into
three parts, but constituting one whole.
- The Commandments, Exodus
They were given orally, then written twice in stones, and in a book.
- The Judgments, Exodus
These judgments were to govern the social life of the nation.
- The judgments, Exodus
- Rules for the three main
feasts, Exodus 23:14-19
- Rules in view of the
conquest of the land, Exodus 23:20-33; Leviticus 26:1-39; Deuteronomy
- The covenant was ratified
by blood, Exodus 24:1-11
- The Ordinances, Ceremonies, and Sacrifices,
These sacrifices and offerings were gracious in their conception.
Anticipating a broken law. God graciously provided a covering
(atonement) that fellowship with Himself might be maintained.
- Voluntary offerings.
Leviticus 1:3; 2:1; 19:5; Numbers 15:2-21
- Burnt offerings.
- Meal offerings,
- Peace offerings,
These were the Sweet Savor Offerings, offered voluntarily, as an act
- Obligatory Sacrifices,
Leviticus 4-5; Numbers 15:22-29
- Sin offering
- Trespass offering
These were the Non-Sweet Savor Offerings, but required offerings in
cases of transgression through ignorance. Leviticus 4:2-3; 5:1-5.
- In cases of "willful
sin" (cp. Psalms 19:13) there was no sacrifice acceptable, only the
fearful expectation of death. All the willful sinner could do was
cast himself on the grace of God and plead for mercy.
- It will be noted that the
covenant was ratified with blood (Exodus 24:1-11) in the solemn method of
ratification of a covenant.
- The Mosaic Covenant was one
It is wrong, therefore, to say that a part of the legal system ("the
ceremonial law") has been set aside, while "the moral law" as such
continues. It is the whole system of law-works that is done away with
(Galatians 2:16; Romans 3:20; Galatians 3:23-25). It is that subtle
"confidence" or "trust in the flesh" that comes to the one who supposes he
is keeping the law (Philippians 3:4-6); that makes him "go about to
establish his own righteousness" (Romans 10:1-3). It is that "law for
righteousness"--the whole system of a human merit basis—of which "Christ is
the end" (Romans 10:4-5).
It should be observed, however, that although the Israelitish Age has ended,
and the Dispensation of the Law is no longer the rule of life of God's
people in this the Church Age, nevertheless, the N.T. epistles restate,
recast, and heighten the ethical content and principles of all 10
commandments, except the Sabbath commandment.
- Some facts about the law:
- "The" law given at a
None from Adam to Moses (Romans 5:13-14)
By Moses John 1:17)
Till seed (Galatians 3:19)
- Not given for mans
salvation, but added:
- Because of transgression,
- That offence might
abound. Romans 5:20
- Holy, just, good, Romans
7:12, so through the commandment sin became exceeding sinful, Romans
- So all arc guilty, Romans
Fragmentary obedience is not enough, Luke 18:11-12; James 2:10
- What the law could not do,
Christ did, Romans 8:3
- Christ was the end of law
for righteousness, Romans 10:4
- Christian is judicially
dead to law, Galatians 2:19; Romans 7:4
- The law is not the rule of
- Error of Galatians
5:1-15; 1 Timothy 1:8-10
- We are not under the law
but grace, Romans 6:14
- We are the sons in the
Father's house. Galatians 4:2,6-7
- We are in the kingdom of
His dear Son, Colossians 1:13
- Jesus is the believer's
Lord (1 Corinthians 12:3; Philippians 3:8) and so we are responsible to
His will for love's sake.
- We are free. Galatians
5:1, but not libertines, Galatians 5:13
- The covenant of works -- or
of the law-was given to Israel only, Exodus 19:3; Deuteronomy 5:1-3;
Romans 2:12-14. (However, the law does its work wherever it goes, Romans
- The purpose of the law:
- To reveal God's holiness,
- To give knowledge of sin,
- To stop mouths, Romans
- To constitute one guilty
before God, Romans 3:19
- To bring under a curse,
- To bring to Christ,
- Unable to justify, Romans
3:20; Galatians 2:16
- Made nothing perfect,
- It was an "added"
condition for a limited time only -- "till the Seed should come, "
- Could not give life.
- It was weak because of
man's flesh, Romans 8:3
- It only stirred up sin,
Romans 7:5, 8-9
- And was sin's strength, 1
- Christ's relation to the law
can be seen by the following considerations;
- He was "made" under it.
- He perfectly obeyed it,
John 8:46; 1 Peter 2:22-23
- He was the minister of it.
- Mercilessly to the Jews,
"this do, " Luke 10:25-37
- But confirmed its
promises, Romans 15:8
- He fulfilled its types in
life and death, Hebrews 9:11-26
- He bore its curse in our
stead. Galatians 3:13-14
(Thus enabled the blessings of the Abrahamic Covenant to come to the
- He made believers "sons"
instead of "servants, " Galatians 4:1-7
- His blood mediated the New
Covenant, Hebrews 8:6-13
(He established the law of Christ and the believer is "in-lawed" to Him, 1
- THE DAVIDIC COVENANT 2
(See New SRB, p. 365)
Closely akin to the Abrahamic Covenant in importance is the covenant made with
David. It is important to our premillennial study.
- Analysis of the covenant 2
- David's son shall succeed
him and establish his kingdom.
- This son shall build the
temple instead of David.
- The throne of his kingdom
shall be established forever.
- The throne will not be
taken away even though his sons' sins justify chastisement.
- David's house, throne, and
kingdom shall be established forever.
- Meaning of the covenant
- Distinguish the promises to
Solomon and David; Solomon promised the immediate throne; David's seed
promised the kingdom forever.
- David's "house" (his
physical descendants) were never to be destroyed completely.
- The throne refers to the
dignity and power of the king, not the material throne.
- Kingdom: reference to the
double political kingdom or sphere of rule.
- Forever: never abrogated,
annulled, or succeeded.
- Cp. History
- Psalm 89:3-4.28-37
- Problem of fulfillment
- All conservative
theologians agree it is fulfilled in Christ. Luke 1:31-33; Matthew 1:1; 2:2
- Question is: HOW and WHEN
Christ fulfills it:
- Some say it is fulfilled
BY PRESENT SESSION of Christ at right hand of the Fat-her reigning over
The "church triumphant" in heaven (i.e. , saints who have gone to be
with the Lord). So, WARFIELD (of Princeton) and some amillennialists.
- Some say it is fulfilled
in "the kingdom of God" as represented now by the Church and Christian
principles on earth. They say this is the ONLY reign of Christ as it
affects the earth, but it is actually a reign of Christ in heaven over
the Church on earth. So, AUGUSTINE and most amillennialists hold.
Obviously, this is not the long-promised 1000 year reign, for it is
between the two advents, not. after the second advent, of Christ.
- Some postmillennialists
hold a similar view to (2) of an ever-expanding kingdom of Christ on
earth today in the spiritual sense, but they differ from amillennialists
in that they believe that Christ will eventually come back to earth and
take over this kingdom in a personal rule sometime after the period
which God knows to be the 1000 year reign has begun, and that He will
complete any part of the 1000 years yet' remaining to run
(post-millennial means any time after the 1000 years have begun, whether
little or much has passed).
- Some say it is fulfilled
by the return of Christ which BEGINS His 1000 year reign-n on earth.
These are called premillennialists.
- Does the Davidic Covenant
require literal fulfillment?
- Arguments for a literal
- Solemn character of a
covenant, confirmed by oath.
- Spiritual fulfillment is
not befitting a solemn covenant.
- Both David and Solomon
understood it to be literal, 2 Samuel 7:18-19; 2 Chronicles 6:14-16
- Language used, also used
by prophets, denotes literal throne and kingdom.
- The Jews expected a
- The throne and kingdom,
as promise and inheritance, belong to the humanity of Christ (David's
seed) rather than to His deity. His literal humanity as David's seed
necessitates a literal people to rule over.
- There is no ground for
identifying David's throne (on earth) and the Father's throne (in
heaven), Revelation 3:21
- Symbolical interpretation
reduces the meaning to human opinion.
- Literal fulfillment is
needed to display God's government 0,1 the earth, which is necessary to
the restoration and exaltation of the Jewish nation, and deliverance of
the earth from the curse.
- Literal fulfillment is
necessary to preserve the Divine unity of purpose.
- Effect of literal
- Present session of Christ
is not a fulfillment.
- Then a future fulfillment
- Premillennial system of
interpretation is thus necessary.
- Difficulties in literal
- There is not continuous
development of the political kingdom of David.
- Does Israel's captivity
and downfall argue against literal interpretation?
- Do centuries since Christ
prove no literal fulfillment?
- Literal fulfillment is
singled out in N.T., Luke 1:32-33
- Postponement or delay
does not affect the fulfillment.
- Occupancy of the throne
need not necessarily be continuous. The only necessary feature is that
the lineage cannot be lost.
- Literal fulfillment is
in keeping with other covenants
- N.T. teaching on reign
- There are 59
references to David in N. T. Not one refers to the throne on which
Christ is seated now.
- Interpretation of
The restoration of the "Tabernacle of David" in its ultimate
explanation (Amos 9:11-15) refers to the reestablishment of the
nation Israel (not the Church) through the return and reign of
David's greater son, Christ. The rebuilt kingly house presumes the
Conclusion: The Davidic Covenant
demands a future literal fulfillment.
- THE PALESTINIAN COVENANT
Deuteronomy 28:63-68; 30:1-9
This covenant gives the conditions under which Israel would enter the land of
promise. This was an eternal covenant (Ezekiel 16:60-62).
(See New SRB, p. 251)
- Analysis of the covenant
- Dispersion for
disobedience, Deuteronomy 28:63-68
- Future repentance of Israel
while in dispersion, Deuteronomy 30:2
- Return of the Lord,
- Restoration to the land,
- National conversion,
- Judgment of Israel's
oppressors, Deuteronomy 30:7
- National prosperity,
- Confirmation in later
Scriptures Ezekiel 16:60-62
- Historical fulfillment
The first portion – dispersion -- has been tragically fulfilled. The
restoration has been only partially fulfilled.
- Ultimate fulfillment
All that was promised under 1 above must be fulfilled. Some may say, "This
is a conditional covenant, 'if.. .if.. .then.'" But notice that God Himself
has promised to bring about the only condition--conversion (Romans 11:26-27;
Hosea 2:14-16) -- making its fulfillment certain.
If this is to be fulfilled literally, Israel must be:
- Installed in her own land,
which she will fully possess
- See her enemies judged
- Receive material blessings
This is exactly what God has promised, Hosea 1:10-2:1,14-23.
- THE NEW COVENANT
Jeremiah 31:31-34; Hebrews 8:6-13; etc.
(See New SRB, p.
- Important Scriptures:
Jeremiah 31:31-34; Ezekiel 16:60; Isaiah 59:20-21 with Romans 11:26-27;
Isaiah 61:2-11; Hosea 2:14-23; Hebrews 7:22; 8:6-13; 9:1,11-22;
10:15-20,28-29; Matthew 26:28; Mark 12:24; Luke 22:20; 1 Corinthians 11:25;
2 Corinthians 3:6
- The three views proposed to
explain the New Covenant
- Amillennial view: It is a
covenant made with the Church which has replaced Israel due to her
failure. (We reject this view.)
- Chafer's suggestion: There
are two "New Covenants"; one with the Church and one yet to be made with
Israel. (Ingenious, but totally lacking proof.)
- View of precise
dispensationalists: The New Covenant is yet to be ratified with a
repentant Israel, but in the meantime the Church anticipatively enters
into its benefits because she is in Christ, God's true Israel, the Seed of
Abraham. (This is the view held in these notes.)
- Why called "New"?
- When first mentioned it was
then called "new" (Jeremiah 31:31) in contrast with the first or older
covenant, the Mosaic Covenant.
- This contrast is also made
in Hebrews 8:6-13.
- This covenant was for the
- The name "New" presupposes
a preexisting covenant which this new covenant supplants. As the old
covenant (the Mosaic) was to Israel, so must this new covenant be.
- This covenant was called
"New" (Jeremiah 31:31) before the death of Christ and the institution of
the Church, which latter did not take place until Pentecost, Acts 2.
- Because of the fact that
the perpetuity of Israel as a nation is linked with it, Jeremiah 31:35-40.
- Because the promise in
Jeremiah 31:31, 34 is "with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah."
- Because Israel's
restoration to the land is linked with this covenant, Jeremiah 31:38-40.
- Analysis of the covenant
In Jeremiah 31:27-40 we find the following facts set forth and pledged:
- Regeneration, for the law
will be put in their inward parts and written on their hearts, v.33.
- Restoration of Israel to
God's favor and blessing, for He will be their God and they shall be His
- The gift of the Holy Spirit,
for they will be taught of God, v.34.
- Justification, for there will
be forgiveness and removal of all sin, v.34.
- Everlasting blessings, vv.
- Exaltation; Israel will
become the head of the nations, vv. 38-40.
- Blood of Christ is the
foundation of all the covenant blessings, Zech. 9:11; Hebrews 13:20; 10:29; 1
Corinthians 11:25; Matthew 26:28; etc.
- Confirmation of the covenant
in the N.T.
- After the Church is founded,
a future fulfillment of the New Covenant with Israel is asserted and
predicted, Hebrews 8:8.
- Hebrews 7, 8, 9,10,12,13 have
in view the future blessings of the nation, as well as the present blessings
of believers of this age, who are saved by the blood shed as required by the
- The relation of the Church to
the New Covenant
- The blood of the New Covenant
which the Lord Jesus Christ shed on Calvary is the basis of the believer's
blessing in this present age. Thus we participate in the value of the
covenant to the sinner.
- The Church partakes of the
Lord's Supper in remembrance of the blood of the New Covenant.
- Christ is a "minister of the
New Covenant, " 1 Corinthians 11:25.
- The believer is a child of
Abraham because he is of the household of faith, Galatians 3:7.
- The believer is a seed of
Abraham because he belongs to Christ, Galatians 3:16, 29.
- He is said to partake of the
root and fatness of the olive tree, Romans 11:17.
- He is no longer an "alien"
and "stranger, " although a Gentile, because he has been "made nigh by the
blood of Christ, " Ephesians 2:12-19.
- He benefits in the New
Covenant as a fellow-citizen of the saints and the household of God, not as
a member of the commonwealth of Israel, Ephesians 2:12.
Thus we conclude that the believer today is saved by the blood shed to make
possible the New Covenant. All spiritual blessings are his through that
blood. His eternal destiny rests solely on the blood of the New Covenant,
but the believer is not put in the commonwealth of Israel, " nor made a Jew.
Since the believer is a child of Abraham by faith (Galatians 3:14-16, 29), he is
eligible to receive the blessings promised to the faithful seed of Abraham,
which would be made possible and actual by the blood of the New Covenant.
But the application of the blood of the New Covenant to the believer today
does not mean that the New Covenant to be made with Israel is being
fulfilled in the Church or will not be fulfilled to Israel in the future.
To summarize, the New Covenant can only be made with the people with whom
God made the Old Covenant, that is, with Israel. However, because of our
union with Christ, as "the seed of Abraham, " we enter into the spiritual
benefits of that New Covenant by anticipation, for that covenant is yet to
be ratified with a repentant Israel at Christ's second advent.
- The following covenants are
declared to be eternal by the Scriptures:
- Abrahamic, Genesis 17:7, 13, 19; 1
Chronicles 16:17; Psalms 105:8-10
- Palestinian, Jeremiah 32:40; Ezek.
- Davidic, 2 Samuel 23:5; 7:16;
Isaiah 55:3; Jeremiah 33:20-21
- New, Isaiah 61:8; Jeremiah 50:5;
NOTE: The covenant of the law is not called "eternal." It was said
a. to be added till the seed should come. Galatians 3:19
b. to be our child discipliner until or up to Christ, Galatians 3:24
- Key point in each covenant
(See New SRB, p. 1317)
- Edenic - conditioned life
before the fall in innocency
- Adamic - conditioned life after
the fall; promises a Redeemer
- Noahic - principle of human
- d. Abrahamic -
and a Blesser
- Mosaic - ministry of
condemnation and restraint of Israel
- Palestinian - restoration and
conversion of Israel in their own land
- Davidic - perpetuity of David's
family, and guarantee of a Davidic Son to sit on David's throne to reign over
David's kingdom and the world
- New - a new heart through
regeneration based on the death of Christ
- Relation of Christ to each of
(See New SRB, p. 1318)
- Edenic - Christ is the "second
man, " the "last Adam, " who regains the headship Adam lost, 1
1 Corinthians 2:10
- Adamic - Christ is the "seed of
the woman, " John 12:31; Galatians 4:4; 1 John 3:8, and fulfilled its conditions of
toil (Mk. 6:3) and obedience.
- c. Noahic - Christ as the
greatest Son of Shem fulfills the promise to Shem, Genesis 9:26-27; Colossians 2:9
- Abrahamic - Christ is the Seed
to Whom the promises were made, Galatians 3:16, and the One obedient unto death.
Genesis 22:18; Philippians 2:8
- Mosaic - Christ lived sinlessly
under the law, 1 Peter 2:22, and bore its curse for us. Galatians 3:10-13
- Palestinian - Christ lived
obediently under it in the land, and will perform its promises, Deuteronomy 28:1-30:9
- Davidic - Christ is the "Seed,
" "Heir, " "King, " Matthew 1:1; Luke 1:31-33
- New - Christ's sacrifice is the
foundation, Matthew 26:27-28; 1 Corinthians 11:25, and He will one day ratify it with
- THE COVENANTS INTEGRATED WITH
(Contrast the so-called "theological covenants," pages 54-57)
ALL the covenants are unconditional except the Mosaic Covenant.
All references are from the New Scofield Reference Bible
||ELEMENTS OF COVENANT
||Genesis 1:26-28; 2:15-17
||Adam and Eve
||Life of man in innocency
Abstain from evil
||Life of fallen man
|Moral Responsibility (Conscience)
||Genesis 8:21-9:17, 24-27
||Noah and Sons
||Life ruled by man
No more floods
||Genesis 12:1-3 ff
||Abram and descendants
Abram a blessing
||Exodus 19:5-8 ff
||ISRAEL as to:
A. Will of God
B. Social life
C. Religious life
C. Ordinances (sacrifices)
||Deuteronomy 28:63-68; 30:1-9
||Entering and possessing the land
Return of Lord
Judgment on oppressors
||2 Samuel 7
||David and Descendants
Discipline upon disobedient in Davidic line
|Law and Kingdom
||Jeremiah 31:31-34; Hebrews 8:6-13, etc.
||Israel primarily, but all in Christ
||Church Age and Millennium
Willing heart and mind
Future covenant and blessing of Israel
|Church and Kingdom
- The inter-relationships between THE COVENANTS and THE AGES (often called
comment on similarities and differences - Eschatology 1, I, B; the titles
used in the right column are non-technical and not precise as in
1, Section II to end,)
||*AGE (or Dispensation)
Genesis 1:26-28; 2:15-17
Conditions life of man in innocency
a. Conditions life of fallen man Adam and
b. Gives promise of a Redeemer
Genesis 8;21-9:17, 24-27
Establishes the principles of Human rule based on the sanctity of life
|3. HUMAN RULE
(the sign - rainbow)
Genesis 12:1-3 ff
a. Founds the nation of Israel; secures the land;
b. Confirms and adds to the Adamic Covenant promise of redemption
and thus looks forward to the Church.
Genesis 11:27-Exodus 18:27
(the sign - circumcision)
Acts 2:1-Revelaton 3:22
(the sign - Bride of Christ)
Exodus 19:5-8 ff
a. Puts Israel under a temporary, conditional relationship for
blessing based on merit.
b. Condemns all men, "for that all have sinned."
Exodus 19:1-Acts 1:26
(the sign - the Sabbath)
Deuteronomy 28:63-68; 30:1-9
a. Secures the final restoration and conversion of Israel
b. Gives the conditions for entering and possessing the land
c. Israel has not so entered yet, but will in the Millennial
|7. DIVINE RULE
Rev. 20; 21:9-22:5
(the sign - Restored to land; converted to God)
2 Samuel 7
a. Assures the perpetuity of David's family
b. Guarantees the Davidic Kingdom over Israel and the whole world.
|7. DIVINE RULE
Rev. 20; 21:9-22:5
(the sign - Son of David reigning on earth)
|8. NEW COVENANT
Jeremiah 31:31-34; Hebrews 8:6-13, etc.
a. Rests on Christ's sacrifice
b. Its blessings are eternal
c. It looks back to the Abrahamic Covenant, Galatians 3:13-29
d. It is unconditional, final, irreversible
e. Contrasts with Law
f. It is not for the Church in the first instance, but its benefits
are broad enough to include the Church's blessing.
|7. DIVINE RULE
Rev. 20; 21:9-22:5
(the sign - the curse of Genesis 3 removed; a new heart)
Acts 2:1-Revelation 3:22
200 Manor Avenue
Langhorne, PA 19047
United States of America
Notes" Study materials on this website are made available
here free, through the generosity of Cairn University,
and may be copied for use in Bible study groups, in limited numbers, providing
that no charge is made for them. No further distribution or use
of these materials is allowable under U.S. or International Copyright
Law without the express permission of Cairn University.